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Full text of "A descriptive catalogue of the musical instruments recently exhibited at the Royal Military Exhibition, London, 1890 ..."






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A CATALOGUE 



OF 



MUSICAL INSTRUMENTS. 



A 



A 



DESCRIPTIVE CATALOGUE 



OF THE 



Musical Instruments 



RECENTLY EXHIBITED AT THE 



ROYAL MILITARY EXHIBITION, LONDON, 1890. 



Issued under the orders of COLONEL SUA IV-HELLIER, Commandant Royal 

Military School of Music; and compiled by CAPTAIN C. R. DA Y, 

Oxfordshire Light Infantry. 




EYRE & SPOTTISWOODE, 

LONDON — EAST HARDING STREET, FETTER LANE, E.C. 

1891. 



PREFACE. 



WHEN the Royal Military Exhibition of last year was 
first promoted, I was requested by those in authority 
to take entire charge of the musical arrangements, and to 
provide for the performance of varied programmes of popular 
music, in the grounds of the Exhibition, during the season. 
As this seemed to me to offer an opportunity, probably unique, 
for enabling the public to judge of the capabilities of our 
best military bands, I thought that by introducing music of 
a higher class into the programmes, and by arranging for a 
constant succession of different military bands, brought from 
all parts of the United Kingdom, instead of employing some 
half dozen bands only, amusement for the frequenters of 
the Exhibition would be more amply provided for. And, in 
addition to this, musical critics would have the opportunity 
of judging of the present state of military music generally, of 
the requirements of a military bandmaster and of a military 
musician, and also of the relative merits and demerits of our 
present system. Accordingly, I suggested this plan, which 
met with the entire approval of H.R.H. the Commander-in- 
Chief, who issued the necessary orders to enable me to carry 
it out. The Exhibition remained open some five months. 
During these five months no less than 74 different military 
bands of all branches of the Service were engaged, most of 
these remaining in London for a week. By these means it 
has been possible to form a very fair idea as to the general 
state of military music in this country, and to gain a large 
amount of material knowledge as to the present system, which 
could not have been otherwise obtained. 

a 3 



vi PREFACE. 



As the development of military music is, like everything 
else in the army, rapidly progressing, it is becoming more 
than ever absolutely necessary that military musicians should 
be in accord and " touch " with the musical profession, and 
should have some real interest as regards what is occurring 
in the musical world ; and unless this is so, we may look in 
vain for any real improvement. That the career of a military 
musician should offer advantages in a professional point of 
view must be fully recognised. And that the curriculum at 
Kneller Hall, as re-constituted, offers a sound musical educa- 
tion, and one which may, in its special way, be brought to 
compare favourably with that offered by the Royal Academy 
of Music, or Royal College of Music, is a point which time 
alone can show ; and that time will show proof of this I 
venture to believe. 

As there is in England, unfortunately, no Conservatoire 
as comprehensive as that of Paris, and no Museum of Musical 
Instruments in which students can see the improvements and 
various experimental stages through which Musical Instru- 
ments have passed, the opportunity offered last year by the 
Exhibition appeared most appropriate for assembling a large 
collection. And as the military musician has chiefly to deal 
with Wind Instruments, which in their present state are 
virtually the growth of the present century, I proposed that 
the collection should be principally one of Wind Instruments. 
The matter was fully discussed at a meeting held at the 
Royal Academy of Music, at which representatives of that 
excellent society, the Wind Instrument Chamber Music 
Society, and various leading musicians were present. It was 
accordingly decided that the aim of the collection should be 
to set forth the gradual history and development of Wind 
Instruments from the earliest times to the most recent improve- 
ments of the day ; a point which appears of the greatest 



PREFACE. vii 



importance, and cannot be overrated. Thanks to the cor- 
dial co-operation of Dr. Mackenzie, Principal of the Royal 
Academy of Music, of M. Gevaert and M. Mahillon, of the 
Brussels Conservatoire, and various other gentlemen distin- 
guished in the musical world, the collection became a fait 
accompli, and was thrown open to the public in June last. 

As there is no text book in English in which the theory 
and construction of Wind Instruments is treated of, it seemed 
that a technical Catalogue designed upon the lines of that 
now issued would be a book of interest, and would also supply 
a want felt generally among students, too many of whom are, 
unfortunately, ignorant of anything further than the mere 
fingering of their instruments. 

Unfortunately, the death of Mr. Charles Cousins, the 
Director of Music at Kneller Hall, which occurred in May 
last, caused my time to be occupied almost entirely with 
the affairs of the School of Music, much extra work falling 
of necessity upon my shoulders. I was therefore unable to 
devote as much time as I could have wished to the prepara- 
tion of this Catalogue, and was compelled to place the 
matter, subject to my supervision, in the hands of Captain 
C. R. Day, an officer whose services had, on account of his 
musical knowledge, been placed, specially, at my disposal by 
H.R.H. the Commander-in-Chief, and whose skill and intelli- 
gence more than realised my most sanguine expectations. 
Certain considerations, over which I had no control, pre- 
vented the publication of this Catalogue before ; but as they 
are now happily removed, the work is issued with the hope 
that it may prove of interest and permanent value. 

To those gentlemen, and to those firms of Musical Instru- 
ment makers, who have so generously assisted us in carrying 
out this work, I desire to convey my fullest thanks, both for 
their disinterested help, and for the kindness and courtesy 



viii PREFACE. 



with which they have met us upon all occasions. The 
names of these gentlemen, and the nature of their assistance, 
are more fully explained in a note of Captain Day's, which 
I requested him to draw up, and which I therefore judge 
better to give at length below. 



T. B. Shaw-Hellier, • Colonel, 
Commandant, Royal Military School of Music. 



NOTE. — In the compilation of this Catalogue much valuable 
assistance has been received from various gentlemen, many of whom, 
at considerable personal inconvenience, unselfishly gave up valuable 
time and devoted themselves to minute examination of the instru- 
ments described in the following pages. I wish especially to thank 
Mr. Richard Rockstro, who very kindly undertook the whole ol 
Section II., relating to Flutes, and who not only furnished the 
necessary details and "copy," but contributed the admirable prefatory 
Essay to that Section, revising and seeing all through the press. 
Especial thanks are also due to the Rev. F. W. Galpin, F.L.S., for 
his energy and labour in connection with Sections I. and IX. The 
details and measurements of almost all the instruments described in 
these Sections were furnished by him, and his varied and practical 
knowledge has been of the greatest value. 

Of the assistance and co-operation of Mr. D. J. Blaikley, the 
able manager of Messrs. Boosey and Co's manufactory, it would be 
impossible to speak too highly. His knowledge of acoustics and his 
unique practical experience he generously placed at my disposal, and 
the value of his help, not in one Section alone but throughout the 
work, cannot be overrated. The learned and exhaustive Essay upon 
Musical Pitch, a subject of ever-increasing importance, and printed in 
the Appendix, is from Mr. Blaikley's pen, and has been written by 
him especially for this work. 



PREFACE. ix 



Valuable assistance has been rendered by M. Victor Mahillon, 
the Conservateicr dn Musee of the Brussels Conservatoire, and the kind- 
ness of this gentleman in coming over, especially, from Brussels was 
very great. Thanks are also due to Mr. Henry Carte for much 
important information ; and to Mr. George Case, whose knowledge 
in connection with instruments of the Trombone family is well known. 
Thanks are due to Messrs. Besson and Co. for their courtesy in 
affording facilities for the examination of various important documents 
and foreign patent specifications. Acknowledgment is due also to 
Mr. Kohler, to Mr. Henry Potter, to Mr. George Potter, to 
Mr. Glen, and to various others too numerous to mention individually. 

In conclusion, I must thank Mr. A. J. Hipkins, F.S.A., for the 
sound criticism and judicious advice so freely given by him upon 
all occasions, and for his kind help and experience, which has been 
of the most material assistance. 



C. R. Day, Captain, 

Oxfordshire Light Infantry. 



CONTENTS. 



SECTION TAGE 

I. Flutes : («) Flutes-a-bec - - i 

II. Flutes: (P) Flutes traversieres - 23 

III. Bagpipes - - - - - 53 

IV. Instruments with Double Reeds : (a) with conical 

BORE - - - - - - 64 

V. Instruments with Double Reeds : (/S) with cylin- 
drical bore - - - - - - 96 

VI. Instruments with Single Reeds : (*) with cylin- 
drical bore ... . - ioi 

VII. Instruments with Single Reeds : (&) with conical 

BORE .....-- iji 

VIII. Instruments with Cup-shaped Mouthpieces: (a.) Tubes 

of fixed length ..... 136 

IX. Instruments with Cup-shaped Mouthpieces: Q3) Length 

varied by means of lateral holes - - - 152 

X. Instruments with Cup-shaped Mouthpieces: (7) Length 

VARIED BY MEANS OF SLIDE .... 174 

XI. Instruments with Cup-shaped Mouthpieces: (8) Length 

VARIED BY MEANS OF VALVES - - - - 182 

XII. Instruments of Percussion - 228 



Appendix — An Essay upon Musical Pitch - 235 



LIST OF LENDERS. 



Her Majesty the Queen. 

Rev. H. F. Armfield, F.S.A. 

W. Ringrose Atkins, Esq., F.C.A. 

C. A. Barry, Esq. 

W. Bateson, Esq. 

Messrs. Besson and Co. 

Messrs. Boosey and Co. 

C. Brock, Esq. 
Thomas Bryant, Esq. 
G. Butler, Esq. 

D. M. Carmichael, Esq. 
G. Case, Esq. 

Mr. E. Cawley, Bandmaster 2nd 

Royal Scots. 
Mr. Q. Cecconi. 
S. A Chappell, Esq. 
The Conservatoire Royal de Mu- 

sique, Brussels. 
T. Davidson, Esq. 
The Director of Artillery. 
G. Donaldson, Esq. 
J. W. Eagles, Esq. 
The Edinburgh University (Chair 

of Music). 
Rev. F. W. Galpin, M.A., F.L.S. 
Messrs. J. and R. Glen. 
Colonel Grant {for the Officers of the 

7th Dragoon Guards). 
Rev. W. B. Grenside. 
The Grossherzogliches Museum, 

Darmstadt. 
Thomas Harper, Esq. 
Alfred Hays, Esq. 
Messrs. Higham and Co. 



Colonel Hill, C.B. 
The Honourable Artillery Com- 
pany. 
E. Hooker, Esq. 

D. L. Isaacs, Esq. 
Messrs. Kohler and Son. 
Henry Lazarus, Esq. 

H. Mackeson, Esq. 

Messrs. Mahillon and Co. 

T. S. Mann, Esq. 

G. Miller, Esq., L.R.A.M. 

Mr. Alfred Morton. 

The Officers of the Royal Horse 

Guards. 
The Officers of the XX th Regiment. 

{Now Lancashire Fusiliers.) 

Messrs. George Potter and Co. 
Messrs. Henry Potter and Co. 

E. Renton, Esq. 

Corporal Roberts, 4th Hussars. 

Miss G. M. Rockstro. 

Messrs. Rudall, Carte and Co. 

Colonel Shaw-Hellier. 

H. A. Smith, Esq. 

M. Cesare Snoeck. 

T. L. Southgate, Esq. 

W. Hugh Spottiswoode, Esq. 

Cyril Spottiswoode, Esq. 

Sir Arthur Sullivan. 

C. Van Raalte, Esq. 

H. Veysie, Esq. 

Messrs. R. Ward and Sons. 

Mrs. Carli Zoeller. 



A CATALOGUE 

OF 

Musical Instruments. 



i. 

class-flutes. 

Family : Fliltes-d-bec. 

THE flute-a-bcc, or fliite douce, so much in use some centuries ago, 
survives now only in the fast disappearing flageolet. The name 
flute is, according to Hawkins, derived from the Latin fluta, a small 
eel found in the Sicilian seas, which has seven breathing holes, and 
thereby resembles the instrument ; the word bee is an old Gallic word 
meaning the beak of a bird. Hence the term flutc-a-bec, or beak flute, 
is very appropriate. Philologists, however, dispute this derivation, and 
possibly with some reason. Instruments of this description were called 
by the Germans plockflotcn, and according to Vincentio Galilei (Dialogo 
della Musica antica e modema, 1581) fiauti diretti, in contradistinction 
to the fiauti traversi, now generally known as " flutes." 

The application of the whistle to the pipe goes back to a higher 
antiquity than has been supposed, and flutes sounded by this means 
were known in the East at a period almost prehistoric. Among the 
ancient Aryans an instrument thus constructed was known by the 
name of Algoa, and is described in many of the Sanskrit treatises 
upon music that are still extant. It figures frequently upon ancient 
Hindu sculptures, and, according to recent investigation, would appear 
also to have been known in China at a period equally remote. 
Among the ancient Greeks flute playing was looked upon as the 
fashionable pastime of the elite, and consequently the instrument was 
considerably improved by various players from time to time ; and flutes 
of the most careful and delicate workmanship have been discovered, 
and prove this to have been the case. 

A 



2 CATALOGUE OF MUSICAL INSTRUMENTS. 

From Greece the instrument appears to have been adopted by the 
Romans, who, indeed, borrowed all that was beautiful in Greek art ; 
and we learn from Tacitus that even the Emperor Nero himself did 
not disdain the drudgery of practice. With Roman conquests came 
also the adoption of Roman manners and Roman arts. Hence the 
instrument spread throughout the civilized world, and its use became 
common. Pere Mersenne, who wrote in 1636-7, calls it the English 
flute, possibly because its use in England was common at that time. 
Ottomarus Luscinius (Nachtgall), a Benedictine monk and a native of 
Strasburg, published in 1536 a treatise entitled Musurgia seu praxis 
Musicce, and which was in reality a translation of the earlier work of 
Virdung, written in 1511. Luscinius has in the work given drawings 
of a set of these flutes-a-bec, and these instruments do not appear to 
differ from the earliest specimens exhibited in this collection. These 
flutes were usually played in complete sets, or families, of soprano, 
alto, tenor, and bass. Sometimes a larger or contrabass was introduced, 
and this practice evidently obtained at the time when Prsetorius wrote 
{Syntagma Musicum, W olffenbiittel , 1618). In England, he tells us, the 
flute-a-bcc was known as the Recorder ; how this name came to be 
given to it is impossible to say. Possibly it is from the old expression 
"to record," which, in the English of some centuries ago, meant "to 
sing," and was usually applied to birds singing. 

According to Praetorius there were eight different kinds of these 
instruments ; viz., the small flute, whose pitch was two octaves above 
that of the cornetto ; the discant flute, a fourth lower ; the discant flute, 
a fifth lower than the first ; the alt flute, an octave lower than the 
first ; the tenor flute a fifth below the alt flute ; the basset flute, which 
had a key enclosed within a box, and was a fifth below the tenor 
flute ; the bass flute, a fifth below the basset flute ; and the great bass 
flute, an octave below the basset flute. Such a set of flutes, he tells 
us, could be purchased in Venice, where the best of them were made, 
for eighty thalers. The usual compass of all these instruments was 
two octaves, but, by the aid of cross fingering, good players could 
extend the compass four or even seven notes higher. Upon the larger 
instruments the fundamental harmonics from the lower holes were 
obtained with difficulty, and were of little practical use, as they could 
only be obtained pianissimo. 



CLASS— FLUTES. 



In the time of Pere Mersenne (Harmonie Univcrsellc, 1636-7) 
we find that flutes-a-bec were played in sets of four or even more. 
They had, nevertheless, undergone considerable improvement as regards 
their construction, both in the manner of keying, and also in the 
method of boring. Mersenne tells us how performers sometimes 
hummed the bass to an air as they played, but with no articulation 
of the voice, the wind proceeding from the mouth being sufficient to 
make the instrument sound, so that one player could perform a duet 
thus. The bore had come to be almost invariably an inverted cone ; 
a cylindrical bore was, however, applied to little instruments, having 
three finger-holes only, and which will presently be described. 

There were usually upon all fliltes-a-bcc seven finger-holes upon 
the top, of which the lowest (for the little finger) was made in 
duplicate, in order that the instrument might be played upon by 
either right or left handed persons ; there was also a thumb-hole at 
the back. The duplicate hole not used was stopped with wax. The 
instrument at a later time was made with the lower joint moveable, 
and this hole could therefore be adjusted to the side at which it was 
required. A device of this kind was almost always to be met with 
upon the English Recorders of the 17th century. The fliUes-a-bec thus 
constructed were simple enough in appearance, but yet by the aid 
of cross fingerings were capable of giving a scale of considerable 
compass. Humphry Salter, in the Genteel Companion (London 1683), 
has given a very complete method for the Recorder, which at that 
period, and since, was generally constructed in /; and from the Genteel 
Companion it seems that the fingering then commonly employed, in 
some respects, differed from that given by Mersenne. 

In the larger varieties of flutes-a-bec the lower finger-holes were 
closed by means of keys, which, though of rude construction, neverthe- 
less fulfilled their purpose adequately enough. These keys had usually 
double touch-pieces, to suit right or left-handed players, and they were 
protected by means of a wooden envelope pierced with holes to allow 
full egress for the sound. The lowest note upon the flute-a-bec had, at 
the beginning of the last century, come to be called /, whatever might 
have been its real pitch. The instrument appears to have been used 
in concerts in conjunction with viols and also violins, though not very 
generally. The elder Stanesby, the instrument maker, invented, about 

A 2 



4 CATALOGUE OF MUSICAL INSTRUMENTS. 

1732, a system which obviated the necessity of transposing the flute 
parts for flutes other than concert flutes, which until that date had 
been the practice. However, the use of the flute traversiere or German 
flute had for some years been gradually supplanting that of the flute- 
a-bec, and Stanesby's endeavours to introduce the new instrument met 
with scant success. 

About the beginning of the 17th century an important alteration 
was made in the fingering of the flute-a-bec, or rather a fresh instru- 
ment of the kind, with a fingering entirely new, appears to have 
been invented. This was called by Mersenne the Flageolet; and the 
same fingering still survives in the French flageolet of the present 
day, an instrument seldom to be met with, except, perhaps, in a few 
dance orchestras upon the continent. The French flageolet differs from 
the ordinary Recorder, in that it has but four finger-holes in front, and 
two thumb-holes behind. The upper thumb-hole is placed at the 
back nearest the mouthpiece, then follow two finger-holes upon the 
top ; these are played by the left hand. The fourth finger-hole is 
placed upon the top, then a thumb-hole at the back, and lastly the 
sixth finger-hole near the lower end of the flageolet. 

The most celebrated player and maker of flageolets in the time of 
Mersenne was one Le Vacher. These instruments were made of various 
sizes, the smaller varieties being used for teaching birds to sing. A 
more detailed description of the flageolet can be found in the Pleasant 
Companion for the Flageolet (London 1682), and from this work it seems 
that both the Recorder and flageolet were in use at the same epoch. 
According to Dr. Burney the invention of the flageolet is ascribed to 
the Sieur Juvigny, who played it in the famous " Ballet Comique de 
la Royne" in 1581. That the instrument achieved great popularity is 
beyond doubt, for it remained in constant use till the beginning of this 
century, when Bainbridge constructed double and even triple flageolets, 
of which specimens are noticed in detail later on in this Catalogue. 

There is yet another instrument of the same family, whose use 
was once almost universal. The Galoubct, or in German Schwegel or 
Stamentienpfeiff — called in England simply pipe, and generally employed 
in conjunction with the tabor — is of great antiquity. It is known to 
have been in use in the thirteenth century, and a representation of it 
occurs in a MS. of that date now in the National Library at Madrid 



CLASS— FLUTES. 



(Cantigas de Santa Maria). Instruments of this kind were, in the time 
of Praetorius, used in sets of two or three, and are mentioned later by 
Mersenne. Essentially of Provencal origin, the use of the pipe and 
tabor spread rapidly, and was carried into England by bands of travel- 
ling minstrels. Many references to, and some illustrations of, the use 
of these instruments are given by Strutt in his Sports and Pastimes, and 
it is only within the last fifty years that the pipe and tabor have ceased 
to be in common use. The peculiarity of the tabor- pipe is that it 
has but three finger-holes, two in front and one behind, all being 
placed very near the end furthest from the mouthpiece. The instru- 
ment speaks, therefore, in the upper harmonic octave, the fundamental 
sounds being impossible to produce. This will be better understood by 
the help of the following scale, which gives the various sounds produced 
with the same fingering ; since the fundamental d" was impossible to 
produce, the instrument took d'" as its pitch. Allowing for the more 
recent rise in pitch, it became nearly our d'"\>. The notation, here 
therefore sounded two octaves higher : — 






b* t| 













o 


o 


• 


• 


• 


o 


o 


o 


o 


• 


o 


o 


o 


o 


o 


o 



The tabor-pipe is held in the left hand, and the finger-holes are 
stopped by the thumb and two first fingers ; and by the best players 
an occasional use is made of the little finger, which is employed to 
half cover the mouth of the pipe. The tabor is beaten by means of 
a short stick ; both stick and tabor being held in the right hand. 

The capability of the tabor-pipe was very great, and there were 
even virtuosi who could produce wonderful effects. Such a performer, 
named John Price, is mentioned by Mersenne, who states that he 
heard him ascend to the compass of a twenty-second upon this 
instrument ! The pipe and tabor have been occasionally introduced 
into the orchestra ; and in the comic opera, " Aline, reine de 
Golconde," composed by Berton, and first performed in 1803, a singu- 
larly beautiful effect has been thus produced. 



6 CATALOGUE OF MUSICAL INSTRUMENTS. 

1. 

Set of Eight Flutes Douces in Case. These instruments are 
all exact reproductions of a set of 17th century flutes preserved in the 
Germanischcs Museum of Nuremburg. They are all of boxwood, most 
beautifully made, with black horn tips. The set consists of — 

One Sopranino, in /", with seven finger-holes in front and one at 
the back. Length 9^ inches, diameter of tube at lip ^g inch, diameter 
at bell § inch. Lowest note 



P 



Two Soprano, in c", constructed in precisely the same way. Length 
12-3- inches, diameter at lip £ inch, at bell j^ inch. Lowest note 




Two Alto, in /', with six finger-holes in front, and also an 
additional one for the little finger, made in duplicate so as to suit 
either a right or left handed player ; the hole not required is, of course, 
stopped with wax. There is also a thumb-hole at the back. Length 
18 inches, diameter at lip f inch, at bell j£ inch. Lowest note 




Two Tenor, in c', made in a similar way to the Alto. Length 
23^ inches, diameter at lip \% inch, at bell ^-§ inch. Lowest note 



One Bass, in /, with six finger-holes in front, and a brass key 
having left and right handed touch-pieces at the lower end ; this key 
works within a box, as is usual with contemporary instruments. There 
is also a thumb-hole at the back. Length 35^ inches, diameter at lip 
if inch, at bell 1 inch. Lowest note 



Lent by the Conservatoire Royal de Musique, Brussels. 



CLASS— FLUTES. 



2. 

Flute Douce, in g'. This beautiful instrument is made of ivory, 
finely carved with foliated designs. The mouthpiece is also carved, 
and takes the form of a fish's head. The bell is very elaborately 
decorated. There are six finger-holes, also one placed slightly to the 
side, for the little finger, and a thumb-hole behind. Length 17 inches, 
diameter at lip f inch, at bell $ inch. Lowest note 



Probably of German make and 18th century. 

Lent by the Rev. F. W. Galpin, M.A., F.L.S. 

3. 

Flute Douce, in /'. Of ivory, most artistically decorated and 
carved with foliated designs. There are six finger-holes in front, also 
an additional hole for the little finger, and a thumb-hole at the back. 
Stamped "J. O. Denner." Length ig^ inches, diameter at lip f inch, 
at bell £ inch. Plate II., fig. F. Lowest note 




Of German make, and late 17th century. This maker was resident 
at Leipzig from 1655 to about 1707, when he appears to have been at 
Nuremberg. 

The flute in /' was that in ordinary use, and is the instrument 

scored for by Bach, who writes the part in the gg clef, which he places 

upon the first line instead of the second. The instrument is used also 
by Handel, who employs also the bass flute — exactly two octaves lower 
— on a few rare occasions. 

Lent by G. Donaldson, Esq. 

4. 

Flute Douce, in /'. Of beautifully decorated and carved boxwood. 
The carving consists chiefly of grotesque figures of fishes ; below the 



8 CATALOGUE OF MUSICAL INSTRUMENTS. 

mouthpiece there is a carved representation of a face. There are the 
usual six finger-holes, with the hole for the little finger, and thumb- 
hole at the back. Length 19^ inches, diameter at lip f inch, at bell 
1% inch. The compass and pitch are the same as in the preceding 
instrument. Stamped "J. W. Oberlender," with the usual initial " O." 
German 18th century. 

Lent by G. Donaldson, Esq. 

5. 

Flute Douce, in /'. Of carved ivory, with six finger-holes in 
front, and the additional hole for the little finger ; also a thumb-hole 
at the back. The bell is made slightly expanding at the mouth. 
Length 18^ inches, diameter at lip J inch, at bell J inch, opening 
to 2 J inches. ' The pitch and compass are as described for the 
instruments above. Stamped with a figure of a crown, and imme- 
diately below the maker's name, "J. Hertz." German or Austrian, 
18th century. 

Lent by Messrs. Rudall, Carte and Co. 

6. 

Flute Douce, in /'. This beautiful instrument is made of wood, 
and covered with polished tortoiseshell ; it is tipped with ivory. The 
compass and description of this instrument do not differ from the usual 
flutes douces in /'. Length 20^ inches, diameter at lip f inch, at bell 
j 7 ^ inch. German, 18th century. 

Lent by the Grossherzogliches Museum, Darmstadt. 

7. 

Flute Douce, in /'. Of wood, covered with polished tortoise-shell. 
This instrument resembles in every way that immediately preceding. 

Lent by the Grossherzogliches Museum, Darmstadt. 

8. 

Flute Douce, in /'. Of ivory, and richly carved with ornamental 
headings and conventional designs. There are six finger-holes in front, 



CLASS— FLUTES. 



but in place of the additional hole for the little finger there is a key, 
which, in its normal position, is open. This key is of ivory, overlaid 
with carved mother-of-pearl. There is also a thumb-hole at the back. 
Length 2o|- inches, diameter at lip f inch, at bell j inch. Stamped 
" Villars." Of French make, of the latter half of the 18th century. 
Plate II., fig. B. 

Lent by G. Donaldson, Esq. 



Flute A Colonne, in /'. This curious instrument is made in the 
form of a column, with a base and a capital. There are six lateral 
holes and a key upon one side, and a thumb-hole upon the other. 
The key, which has both left and right handed touch-pieces, works 
within a perforated brass box in front of the instrument. In this same 
box is also the vent or bell. The mouthpiece is placed at the side of 
the capital of the column ; the whistle, placed in front just below the 
capital, is concealed by a box of pierced brass artistically designed. 
The instrument gives the following fundamental intonations, the key 
giving g' :— 






O. K. I234567 

Height of column 20^ inches, diameter \^ inch. Marked with a trefoil, 
but with no maker's name. Probably 16th or early 17th century. 
Plate IV., fig. F. 

Flutes of this description do not appear to have been mentioned 
by any of the early writers, such as Prastorius or Mersenne. There 
are two specimens of larger size, in e'\> and b\>, in the Museum of the 
Paris Conservatoire, and which are described by M. Chouquet in his 
catalogue. It seems probable that these instruments were made, as a 
novelty of shape, by some maker to satisfy the caprice of some wealthy 
amateur of the time. They are, nevertheless, extremely interesting as 
musical curiosities. 

Lent by the Conservatoire Royal de Musique, Brussels. 



io CATALOGUE OF MUSICAL INSTRUMENTS. 

10. 

Flute Douce, in c'. Of stained wood, made entirely in one 
piece, with six finger-holes, and an additional double hole for the little 
finger to suit right or left handed players, and a thumb-hole at back. 
Length 24! inches, diameter at lip 1 inch, at bell f inch. Plate III., 
fig. H. The lowest note is 




German, 16th or 17th century. 

Lent by the Conservatoire Royal de Afusique, Brussels. 

11. 

Flute Douce, in c'. This instrument is made of boxwood, entirely 
in one piece. There are the usual six finger-holes in front ; also the 
additional double hole for the little finger, to suit right or left handed 
performers, and a thumb-hole at the back. The compass and pitch 
of this instrument are precisely as described for the flute immediately 
preceding. The peculiarity of this instrument consists in the fact 
that the whistle and mouthpiece are placed at the back of the flute, 
instead of in front, as is usually the case. Length 25 inches, diameter 
at lip 1 inch, at bell f inch. German, 16th or 17th century. 

Lent by Messrs. Rudall, Carte and Co. 

12. 

Flute Douce, in a. Of stained wood. There are six finger-holes 
in front, and a brass key, with left and right handed touch-pieces, 
working within a perforated wooden box ; there is also a thumb-hole 
at the back. The lowest note given by this instrument is 



SB 



± 



Length 28 inches, diameter at lip i^g inch, at bell T f inch. Plate III., 
fig. G. 16th or 17th century. 

Lent by the Conservatoire Royal de Musiqiu, Brussels. 



CLASS— FLUTES. n 



13. 

Flute Douce, in a. Of dark stained wood, with six finger-holes 
and one open brass key upon one side, and a thumb-hole upon the 
other. This instrument is of English make, and is stamped " Stanesby, 
junior." It was probably made about 1730. The compass is 



W-r t0 fc= 



~ •- 

Length 29^ inches, diameter of tube at lip and at top of middle 
joint, f inch, at bell £ inch. 

This instrument appears to correspond exactly, as regards size and 
appearance, with that shown in the hands of the Recorder player, in 
the frontispiece given by Humphrey Salter in the Genteel Companion, 
published in 1683. The same plate shows a smaller instrument, of a 
somewhat similar kind, lying on the table at the player's side. 

Lent by the Rev. F. W. Galpin, M.A., F.L.S. 

14. 

Flute Douce, in g. Of stained wood, with six finger-holes upon 
one side. There is also upon the same side a key having left and 
right handed touch-pieces, and which works within a perforated box. 
There is a thumb-hole at the back. Length 37 inches, diameter 
at lip i T 5 g inch, at bell 1^- inch. Plate III., fig. F. This instrument 
is sounded by means of a short brass crook placed at the top of the 
whistle. The lowest note is 

3EB 



16th or 17th century. 

Lent by the Conservatoire Royal de Musique, Brussels. 

15. 

Flute Douce, in g. Of stained wood, with six finger-holes in 
front and a thumb-hole at back. There is also, in front, a key, with 
left and right handed touch-pieces, working inside a perforated box. 



12 CATALOGUE OF MUSICAL INSTRUMENTS. 

The compass and pitch of this instrument are as described for the 
flute immediately preceding. The length is 36 inches, diameter at 
lip i T 3 y inch, at bell 1 inch. This flute was sounded by a metal crook 
as described above. 16th or 17th century. 

Lent by the Grosshcrzogliches Museum, Darmstadt. 

16. 

Tenor Flute Douce, in /. Of stained wood, with six finger- 
holes and a key, right or left handed, in front, and a thumb-hole at 
back. The key in this specimen is not covered by a box, as was the 
case with the earlier flutes. This instrument was sounded with a 
brass crook, which is now missing. The lowest note is 



S±p 



Length 40 inches, diameter at lip i^ inch, at bell | inch. Stamped 
"J. Steenbergen " ; probably about the commencement of 18th century. 

Lent by the Grossherzogliches Museum, Darmstadt. 



17. 

Tenor Flute Douce, in /. Of dark stained wood, with six 
finger-holes and a brass key (single touch -piece) in front, and a 
thumb-hole at back. There is also an ivory ring round the top of 
the instrument. The crook is missing. The compass and pitch of 
the flute are as described for the instrument above. Length 39 inches, 
diameter at lip iyy inch, at bell f inch. 18th century. 

Lent by the Grossherzogliches Museum, Darmstadt. 

18. 

Bass Flute Douce, in c. Of wood, with six finger-holes in 
front ; also a flat brass key, with right or left handed touch-pieces, 
working within a perforated box. There is also a thumb-hole at the 
back. Length of instrument, without crook, 48^ inches, diameter at 
lip i T 9 s inch, at bell ij inch. The length of the crook and mouth- 



CLASS— FLUTES. 13 



piece is 15 inches, but this of course does not affect the pitch. 
Plate III., fig. E. The lowest note is 



m 



Lent by the Conservatoire Royal de Musique, Brussels. 

19. 

Great Bass Flute Douce, in C. This is an exact reproduction 
of an instrument now in the Musee du Stecn, at Antwerp. It is of 
stained wood, with six finger-holes on the upper side, and two open 
brass keys, both of which have the usual double touch -pieces, and 
which work inside a perforated box. The keys give Cti and Cfi. 
The flap of the C ', key rests upon that of the C$, so closing the 
latter automatically when depressed. There is a thumb-hole, as usual, 
at the back. Lowest note ^^ 



f 



Length, not including crook, 8 feet 7 inches, diameter at lip 2 inches, 
at bell if inch. The crook itself is 35 inches in length. 

Lent by the Conservatoire Royal de Musique, Brussels. 

20. 

Picco Pipe. This extremely small instrument is only 3^ inches 
in length, and has a cylindrical bore opening out at the bell to 
I inch in diameter. There are two finger-holes in front and one at 
the back. The compass extends to two octaves, and the scale is 
completed by inserting the second finger of the right hand into the 
bell. The lowest note, which is formed by placing the hand over the 
bell and closing the pipe, is either 

-a— 4- 

or ifi=^= 




The pipe upon which the celebrated Picco played himself was some- 
what larger than the present specimen. Prsetorius mentions that at 



14 CATALOGUE OF MUSICAL INSTRUMENTS. 

the commencement of the 17th century pipes of a similar description 
were made with three holes in front and one at the back, and the 
additional hole is still preferred by some players. The bore of these 
pipes, and that of the tabor-pipe and galoubet, is cylindrical. 

Lent by the Rev. F. W. Galpin, M.A., F.L.S. 

21. 

Tabor -Pipe. Of light stained wood, with two finger-holes in 
front and one at the back. Stamped " Robert Cotton, London." 
The lowest note is 




Length 12J inches, diameter of bore T 5 C inch. English. 17th or 
early 18th century. 

The tabor pipe (called in France Galoubet, and in Germany 
Schwegel) is held and played by one hand, while the other beats a 
small drum or tabor. Though no longer used in England, pipes of 
this description are still employed in the Basque provinces, where 
they are used in conjunction with the tambourin, a kind of dulcimer. 

Lent by Messrs. H. Potter and Co. 

22. 

Tabor- Pipe. Of stained wood, with the joint of ivory. There 
are two finger-holes in front and one at the back. The size and 
compass of this pipe do not differ from that just described. It is 
stamped " Heny. Potter, 2, Bridge Street, Westminster," but is 
probably not made by him, but of earlier date. 18th century. 

Lent by the Rev. F. W. Galpin, M.A., F.L.S. 

23. 

Tabor-Pipe. This very beautiful little instrument is made entirely 
of ivory, and is most artistically carved with bands of foliated scroll- 
work and figures of musical instruments. There are two finger-holes 
in front and one at the back. In its proportions and compass it 
does not differ from the two instruments above. The ornamentation 



CLASS— FLUTES. 15 



and general design prove it to be French, and it dates probably from 
the latter end of the 18th century. Plate II., fig. D. 
Lent by G. Donaldson, Esq. 

24. 

Bass Galoubet, in c'. This very rare instrument is of wood, and 
has been most carefully restored. There are two finger-holes upon 
one side and a thumb-hole upon the other. The instrument is played 
with a brass crook. The lowest note is 



Pi 



Length, not including crook, 30 inches, diameter of bore \% inch. 
The bell of the instrument opens out to f inch. The length of the 
crook is 23I inches. 

Lent by the Conservatoire Royal de Musigue, Brussels. 

25. 

Flageolet. Of boxwood, tipped with ivory. There are four 
finger-holes in front and two at the back, also four brass cup-shaped 
keys on knobs, giving d"§ and a'§, the two others being shake keys. 
The lowest note is g", and there is a compass of two chromatic octaves 
and three semitones. Stamped " D'Almaine & Co., late Goulding 
& D'Almaine, Soho, London." Length 14^ inches, diameter at bell 
•j 7 g inch, at lip j inch. 

This instrument, now known as the French flageolet, preserved 
the peculiar fingering of the original instrument, invented in the 16th 
century, and described in the Pleasant Companion for the Flageolet in 
1682. The French flageolet is not a transposing instrument, but 
simply a flageolet in c'" descending to g", which is written 



the music for the flageolet being written an octave below the real 
sounds. The ordinary flageolet is merely a small flute-a-bec, or even 
flute traversiere, played with a whistle. 

Lent by Messrs. Rudall, Carte and Co. 



16 CATALOGUE OF MUSICAL INSTRUMENTS. 

26. 

Piccolo Flageolet, in c'". Of dark wood, with ivory tips and 
mouthpiece. There are six finger-holes in front, and an extra one at 
the lower end for the little finger. There is a single cup-shaped key, 
of silver, on knobs at the back. There are also five silver studs or 
guides in front. The total length of the instrument is only 9 inches, 
and its lowest note is c"\ Its compass extends to an octave and a 
sixth. 

This little instrument stands an octave above the piccolo, and was 
formerly used for teaching birds to sing. The finger-holes vary greatly 
in size, in order to ensure correct intonation. The key at the back 
gives the sharps to most of the notes without cross fingering. 
Bainbridge took out a patent in 1807 for a key which produced the 
same effect. 

Lent by the Rev. F. W. Galpin, M.A., F.L.S. 

27. 

Flageolet, in c". Of boxwood, with seven finger-holes in front 
and one silver key, giving e"\>, also a thumb-hole at the back. There 
are five small ivory guides between the finger-holes in front. There 
is a large ivory plate or ring at the bell end of the instrument, 
apparently so that it can stand on end when not in use. The lowest 
note is 



P 



Length 16^ inches. 

Lent by Messrs. H. Potter and Co. 

28. 

Flageolet, in c". Of black wood, with six finger-holes in front. 
There are four keys, of white metal and cup-shaped, in front, and 
one at the back. The keys give b"\>, g"%, /", e"\f, and c"§; the 
top hole is three-quarters closed, and so gives c'" instead of c'"§. 
The lowest note is d". Length i6f inches. 

Lent by G. Butler, Esq. 



CLASS— FLUTES. 17 



29. 

Flageolet, in a'\>. Of boxwood, with six finger-holes and an 
additional hole for the little finger in front, and a thumb-hole at the 
back. There are four flat brass keys on knobs giving b"\>, g"§, f", 
and e" \> ; also five ivory studs or guides, and an ivory mouthpiece. 
Length, including mouthpiece, igf inches. Stamped " T. Prouse, 
Hanway St., London. New Patent." The lowest note is called c$, 
and actually sounds . 



The fifth hole is made of rather larger size, thereby giving /$, instead 
of /t|, as in the flute douce. This improvement was patented by 
Bainbridge in 1803. 

Lent by the Rev. F. W. Galpin, M.A., F.L.S. 



30. 

Flute Flageolet, in c'. Of boxwood, and tipped with ivory. 
There are six finger-holes, arranged as in the flute traversiere. There 
is also one square-flapped silver key giving c'\). The lowest note of 
this instrument is d'. The mouthpiece resembles that of the more 
early flutes douces, and the instrument is held in a similar manner. 
It is stamped " S. French, London," and is of the early part of the 
present century. Length 22 inches. 

Lent by the Rev. F. W. Galpin, M.A., F.L.S. 



31. 

Flute Flageolet, in c'. Of boxwood, with six finger-holes in 
front, also a brass square-flapped key giving e'\). This instrument is 
blown by means of a small ivory mouthpiece placed at the side, and 
it is held as a flute traversiere. Its lowest note is d'. It is stamped 
" Bainbridge & Wood, 35, Holborn Hill, London. New Patent." This 
is Bainbridge's patent of 1807. 

Lent by Messrs. Rudall, Carte and Co. 



CATALOGUE OF MUSICAL INSTRUMENTS. 



32. 

Double Flageolet, in c". This curious old instrument, the proto- 
type of the elaborate double flageolets of the early part of this century, 
is made from a single piece of wood. There are two channels pierced 
parallel, and both sounded by whistles. The two tubes are pitched a 
third apart, the lowest notes being 




The larger pipe is placed on the player's right. There are seven holes 
to each pipe in front, and they are placed in pairs side by side. 
There are two holes, one for each pipe, at the back. Length 12 inches. 
Diameter of right-hand tube, at bell -j^ inch, at lip fy inch ; of left- 
hand tube at beH f inch, at lip \ inch. Plate IV., fig. H. 

There is a representation of a double flageolet of this kind in the 
Encyclopedic Mcthodiquc of 1785. 

Lent by the Grossherzogliches Museum, Darmstadt. 

33. 

Double Flageolet, in c". Of boxwood, with two parallel tubes, 
of unequal length, fixed in the same stock. The left tube is pierced 
with seven finger-holes, and has two silver keys, which give d" and e"\>. 
The tube on the right hand has four finger-holes, with an additional 
hole for the little finger, and three silver keys giving c'", b" , and the 
c" \f below. The lowest note upon the instrument is 




It was probably made by Bainbridge about 1810, but it is stamped 
" Metzler, London, 105, Wardour Street. Patent." In this instrument, 
and also in all of the double flageolets described hereafter, either tube 
can be silenced at will by a cut-off shutter, which acts upon the 
whistle. Length 15! inches. 

Lent by T. L. Southgate, Esq. 



CLASS— FLUTES. 19 



34. 

Double Flageolet, in «'[>. Of boxwood, and tipped with ivory. 
Both the tubes are of equal length, and are fixed parallel in one stock, 
which contains both the whistles. The left tube is pierced with six 
finger-holes, and one for the little finger in addition. There are also 
two silver keys, which give d" and e"\> . The tube on the player's 
right has only four finger-holes, with one for the little finger ; there 
are three silver keys, which give c'", b", and the e"\} below. The 
lowest note is called cS, and sounds 



Length i8| inches. Stamped " Bainbridge & Wood, 35, Holborn Hill, 
London." 

Lent by the Rev. F. W. Galpin, M.A., F.L.S. 



35. 

Double Flageolet, in a' \>. Of boxwood, with two tubes 
of equal length fixed parallel in one stock. The left-hand tube is 
pierced with six finger-holes, and with one in addition for the little 
finger. There are also three silver keys, giving d", f", and e"\>. 
The right-hand tube has four holes, and an additional hole for the 
little finger. There are four keys, which give c'", b", f", and e"\>. 
Length 19^ inches. The lowest note sounds fl'fl, as in the pre- 
ceding instrument. Stamped " Simpson, from Bainbridge's, 26, Oxford 
Street. Patent." 

Lent by Messrs. Besson and Co. 



36. 

Double Flageolet, in c". Of boxwood, with two tubes of equal 
length. The tube for the left hand is pierced with six finger-holes, with 
an additional hole for the little finger. There are also four silver keys, 
which give d'", c'", /", and d"#. The right-hand tube has five holes 

B 2 



20 CATALOGUE OF MUSICAL INSTRUMENTS. 



and four keys, which give c'", 6", /", ami g"|>. Stamped " Bainbridge, 

Inventor, Holborn Hill." The lowest note is 




Length [6 inches. This instrument is fitted with the "New C$ key" 
on the left pipe, between the whistle and the first finger-hole. This 
was an improvement patented by Bainbridge in 1819. 

Lent by G. Butler, Esq. 



37. 

Double Flageolet, ina'(>. Of boxwood, stained black and tipped 

with ivory. There are two tubes, but of unequal lengths. The shorter 

pipe is pierced with six finger-holes, and has four silver keys, which 

give </'", /", s"b, and the v" § below, the latter being an open key. 

The larger of the two pipes has but lour iingcr-holcs, and there are 

five silver keys, which give c'", b", J", and the c"H and //fl below. 

The lowest nobs arc, on the two tubes, 



Length 21^ inches. Stamped " Simpson, 266, Regent Street, Oxford 
Strict, London. Patent. " This was probably made about 1850. It 

includes Bainbridge's patent extension to the "low Z?fl" on the right 

tube, an improvement patented in 1819. 

Lent by the Rev. F. W. Galpin, M.A., F.L.S. 



38. 

|)oi ni.i' hi vc.koi.kt, in <»'[>. Of boxwood, with two tubes of un- 
equal length. The shorter tube has six finger-holes, and five closed 
keys, «'"b, <<"'. '•'". /". <<"#: also an open key giving c"#. The 

longer tube has four linger-holes and lour keys, which give d'", C 1 ", 



CLASS FLVTLS. 21 



/", and c". Stamped "Simpson, Recent Street, Oxford Street." Tin: 
lowest notes arc q 

Length 2i\ inches. In place of the usual cut-off shutter for silencing 
cither pipe at will, there is a contrivance like a key, which covers the 
whole aperture of the whistle, and is worked by a lever. This instru- 
ment has also the "patent C R " key of 1819. 

Lent by Messrs. H. Potter and Co. 

39. 

Double Flageolet, in a'\). Of boxwood, and tipped with ivory. 
There are two tubes of unequal length, the shorter of which is pierced 
with six finger-holes, and has also five keys, which give c'"\>, d'", c'", 
J", </"$, and c"$; the latter is an open key. The longer tube has 
four finger-holes only, and has also five keys, giving c'", b", /", and 
the low c" and b' ; the b'$ key is open. Stamped " Hastrick, late 
Bainbridge, Inventor, 35, Holborn Hill, London. Patent." The 
lowest notes are 



P 



Length 21 inches. The "patent C 5 " key is also upon this instrument. 
Lent by Messrs. Rudall, Carte and Co. 

40. 

Double Flageolet, in a'\f. Of boxwood, with ivory tips. The 
general construction of this instrument does not differ from that 
mentioned immediately before. Stamped " Hastrick, 35, Holborn Hill, 
New Patent." 

Lent by Messrs. Kohler and Son. 

41. 
Triple Flageolet, in c'. This instrument is made of boxwood, 
and is tipped with ivory. It is constructed of three separate tubes, 
all being blown from the same mouthpiece. The general look of the 



22 CATALOGUE OF MUSICAL INSTRUMENTS. 

instrument is that of an ordinary double flageolet, but with an ad- 
ditional tube of greater length hanging parallel, and communicating 
with the upper part of the top joint by a lateral tube. The shortest 
of the tubes has seven finger-holes, and the usual five flat brass keys 
(closed). There are also three long levers, which close the /", e" , and 
d" holes. The second tube has four holes and three brass keys (closed), 
which give b", /"fl, and the low e" ; a key placed at the back gives b'. 
The third tube has only one open hole, and four closed brass keys, 
which are worked by the thumb of the left hand. The keys give 
d" , c", a', and g'. Any of the tubes can be stopped off at pleasure. 
The instrument is supported upon a rest. Length, including rest, 
225- inches. Stamped " Bainbridge, Inventor, 35, Holborn Hill, 
London." The lowest notes given by all three tubes are 



Lent by Messrs. Rudall, Carte and Co. 



( 2 3 ) 

II. 

CLASS-FLUTES. 

Family : Transverse flutes ; flutes traversieres, or German flutes, 
now generally known as "flutes." 

THE flute of the present day has little in common with the fl'dte, 
the schwegel, the flute droitc, or the flutc-a-bec of early times, these 
being simply whistles, whereas the distinguishing characteristics of the 
modern flute, like those of its prototype the zwcrchpfciff or schweitzer- 
pfeiff, are the complete closing of the extreme upper end of the 
instrument, and the lateral mouth-hole, or embouchure. The flute of 
our time may be described as a tube closed at one end by a " stopper " 
of cork or other material (which for the last century and a half has 
generally been made moveable), and provided with seven or more 
lateral apertures. These, with the exception of that nearest to the 
closed end of the flute (the mouth-hole), are governed by the fingers, 
either directly or with the aid of " keys." The form of the mouth- 
hole has varied greatly at different periods and places. Oval is now 
the favourite shape in this country, but on the Continent an oblong, 
slightly rounded, is often used. In order to sound the instrument it 
is necessary to blow across this opening, which, being always partly 
open when the flute is in use, renders the tube, in an acoustical sense, 
open at both ends, consequently the harmonic sounds of the flute are 
the same as those of a stretched string, whatever, within very wide 
limits, the form of the bore may be. The passing of the breath 
directly from the lips to the edge of the mouth-hole, without the 
intervention of the rigid mouth-piece common to all instruments of 
the whistle type, gives to the skilful flute-player absolute command 
over the tone of his instrument. 

The bore of the early flute was invariably cylindrical throughout, 
or as nearly cylindrical as it could be made. At a period approaching 
the close of the seventeenth century the lower portion of the tube 
was gradually contracted in diameter so that it became conoidal, 
while for the upper part, or "head-joint," the original cylindrical form 
was retained. The advantages of the conoidal bore were so great 



24 CATALOGUE OF MUSICAL INSTRUMENTS. 

that it was scon generally adopted, excepting for military fifes ; these, 
until recently, were made entirely cylindrical ; hence, for the sake of 
distinction, the term " flute " came to be applied to transverse flutes 
of all sizes, with bore wholly or partly conoidal, while the smaller 
cylindrical instruments of the same genus were, and are, designated 
" fifes." The true fife is, however, almost obsolete, the instruments 
used in the so-called " drum and fife bands " being flutes of various 
sizes, with the bore usually described as " conical." 

In the year 1847 an important change was made in the bore of 
the flute by the late Theobald Boehm of Munich. This change almost 
amounted to a complete reversal of the proportions which had been 
adopted for the previous century and a half, the head-joint being 
reduced in diameter at the upper part, while for the lower part, or 
" body," of the flute the original cylindrical shape was restored. The 
"cylinder flute with parabola head," the name by which such instru- 
ments are generally known, possesses, under certain circumstances, a 
most decided and indisputable preponderance of advantages over the 
" conical flute," and it has become deservedly popular in England, 
France and America ; it is, however, but little esteemed in Germany. 

One of the most interesting facts relating to the history of musical 
instruments is the almost complete immunity from change which has 
been maintained in the diameter of the cylindrical part of the bore of 
the " concert-flute," that is, the flute which gives the notes as they 
are written and fingered. The earliest, and the smallest, recorded 
measurement of the bore of this instrument, that given by Mersenne 
(Harmonie Universclle, Paris, 1636-7), is 'Ji inch, and there is no reason 
to believe that the diameter of the cylinder has ever exceeded 75 inch. 
The largest part of the bore of a concert-flute of the latest pattern has 
a diameter of 19 millimetres, "748 inch. 

The primitive flutes were provided with six " finger-holes " only : 
these, being covered or uncovered successively, gave a descending or 
ascending diatonic scale of an octave, less one note, the open end of 
the flute giving the key-note. The second series of notes was formed, 
as at present, by the harmonic-octaves of the first series ; the third, 
or as much of it as was possible, by the higher harmonics, assisted in 
their production by the opening of certain finger-holes as "vent-holes." 
The holes of the flutes of the sixteenth century were exceedingly small. 



CLASS— FLUTES. 25 



No. 44 is a most interesting specimen of these very early instru- 
ments. In the following century the finger-holes were much increased 
in size, those of the flute described by Mersenne varying from '266 to 
•444 inch in diameter. Probably with a view to improving what are 
termed " fork-fingerings " the holes were afterwards reduced in size. 
Those of the Monzani flute, No. 65, vary from '18 to '36 inch. The 
size was again increased by the celebrated Nicholsons, father and son, 
the largest hole (that for f'jt) of the Nicholson flutes being often 
•45 inch in its exterior diameter. The best modern concert-flutes, in 
the writer's opinion, have equal-sized holes (with the exception of the 
highest three) of "64 inch. The main advantage of this increase and 
uniformity is the preservation of perfect intonation in the several 
octaves. 

In the times when Mersenne, Hotteterre and Quantz wrote, 1636 
to 1752, the compass of the flute was considered to extend for about 
two octaves and a half; we have now three octaves of good notes, 
with a few higher sounds of inferior quality of tone. 

About the year 1660 the first step was taken in the direction of 
rendering the flute a chromatic instrument. This was the addition 
of a seventh finger-hole, giving d'$, governed by a closed key which 
was opened by the little finger of the right hand. The name of the 
inventor of this key is unknown, but no great ingenuity had been 
exercised in its application to the flute, as similar keys had long 
previously been applied to other wind-instruments. We are told by 
Quantz that about the year 1722 the flute was lengthened in order 
that c'jfc and c't| might be obtained. The holes for these notes 
were governed, as at present, by open keys. No. 50 is an early 
example of a flute with the c'$ key. The well-known keys for /fl, 
gjfc, and b\> were coming into use at a period not far removed from 
1774. The precise dates of their invention cannot be determined, but 
there is certain evidence that they were made in London by Richard 
Potter, the grandfather of the renowned Cipriani Potter, before the 
above-mentioned year. It is also proved by Dr. J. J. H. Ribock, a 
German doctor of medicine, that these keys were made, at a period 
before the year 1782, by Tromlitz of Leipsic and by Kusder of London, 
the maker of the two hautboys numbered 178 and 179. The long 
key for /fl was invented by Tromlitz before the year 1786. The 



26 CATALOGUE OF MUSICAL INSTRUMENTS. 

history of the c" key (which was at first an open one, similar to that 
on most of the modern flutes) is extremely interesting, but too long to 
be inserted here. The ordinary c" key of the " eight-keyed flute" was 
invented prior to 1806. 

The first systematic attempt to battle with the imperfections and 
difficulties caused by the union of open holes with closed keys, and the 
adaptation of the positions of the former to suit the convenience of 
the fingers instead of in accordance with the requirements of the 
musical scale, was made by Tromlitz, and described by him in 1800. 
A more important and ingenious effort was made by a German doctor 
of medicine, named H. W. Pottgiesser, in 1803, but little notice seems 
to have been taken of either of these attempts to improve the flute, 
and even a letter from the illustrious C. M. von Weber, in the Leipsic 
Musical Gazette, concerning a new flute by Capeller of Munich, received 
scant attention, although on this flute was placed, for the first time, 
the now almost universally adopted key for d". A further experiment 
by Pottgiesser, in 1824, met with no better reception, and, notwith- 
standing numerous minor improvements, the flute remained in its old 
anomalous condition until 1826, when the unfortunate Captain Gordon 
of Charles the Tenth's Swiss Guards, an amateur passionately devoted 
to the flute, began to apply himself to the task of devising a rational 
system of open holes and open keys, founded on the schemes of Trom- 
litz and Pottgiesser. How Theobald Boehm modified the machinery, 
while retaining the principal features of the system of Gordon ; how 
he asserted that the invention was, ab initio, his own, and that Gordon 
was utterly ignorant of the principles of flute-construction, are matters 
which have been amply discussed, and which need no more than a 
passing allusion here. The "ring-key" (see No. 97) for closing an 
open key and an uncovered hole by the same finger, an invention 
often attributed to Boehm, was first applied to a flute by the Reverend 
Frederick Nolan in 1808. Pottgiesser, in 1824, and Gordon after him, 
employed a crescent, partly surrounding the hole, for the same pur- 
pose. Many of the subsequent improvements and modifications are 
illustrated by the specimens hereafter described. 

It has been the immemorial and almost universal custom to consider 
the fundamental note of the simple transverse flute as d', whatever 
its actual sound may have been. The flutes on which the note d' 



CLASS— FLUTES. 27 



(and of course every other note of the scale) sounded as it was written 
and fingered, were called d', or concert, flutes. Those of other sizes 
were named after the note actually given when d' was fingered. For 
example : a flute giving /', with the fingering of d', was called an 
/ flute, or a flute in /, and the music for such an instrument was 
written a minor third lower than the actual sounds of the notes. 
This custom still prevails, and has been followed in the descriptions 
of the flutes in this Catalogue. It should be understood that although 
a " c' clarionet " gives the actual notes, as written and fingered, a 
" c' flute " gives sounds a full tone lower. The names of piccolos and 
fifes follow the same rule as those of flutes, excepting that those 
instruments sound an octave higher ; the d" piccolo, or octave-flute, 
sounding an octave higher than the d', or concert, flute. 

The pitches of the flutes described in the following pages are 
reckoned from a standard a' with 452 double vibrations to the second, 
corresponding to c" with 537*5 vibrations. 



FIFTEENTH OR SIXTEENTH CENTURY. 

42. 

Fife of dark brown wood, in b't[, without keys. Length from cork 
12*7 inches. Diameter of bore '37 inch. The surface of the wood is 
flattened from end to end, and on the flattened side the holes are 
placed. Instruments similar to this are figured by Virdung (Musica 
gctutscht etc., 1511) and by Agricola (Musica Instrumcntalis Deudsch, 1528, 
1532 and 1545). Thoinot Arbeau (Jehan Taburot) gives a quaint 
description of this kind of fife, and of the manner in which it was 
played : " Those who perform on this instrument," he writes, " play 
according to their own pleasure, and it is enough for them to keep 
time with the sound of the drum." (Orchesographic, Langres, 1588.) 
See plate I., fig. F. 

Lent by the Conservatoire Royal de Musique, Brussels. 



28 CATALOGUE OF MUSICAL INSTRUMENTS. 

43. 

Cylindrical flute of dark brown wood, in one piece, without 
keys, in /'. Length from cork 17*4 inches. Diameter of bore '57 inch. 
Precisely similar, excepting in size, to No. 42. See plate I., fig. E. 

Lent by the Conservatoire Royal de Musique, Brussels. 

44. 

Cylindrical flute of box-wood, in 6|j, without keys, mountings, 
or cap ; in one piece. Length from cork 25*4 inches. Diameter of 
bore 'J?, inch. Branded with the name " C. Rafi," surmounting a 
shield bearing a griffin. A similar device is placed between the 
g and a holes. Between the initials C. and R. there is a trefoil. See 
plate I., fig. D. 

This rare and most interesting specimen is evidently of a much 
earlier date than the cylindrical flute described by Mersenne {pp. cit.) 
It is probably one of the oldest transverse flutes in existence. 

Lent by the Conservatoire Royal de Musique, Brussels. 



SEVENTEENTH CENTURY. 

45. 

Model of a cylindrical flute, in one piece, without keys, giving /ft 
as its lowest note. Length from cork 32^4 inches. Diameter of 
bore *95 inch. See plate I., fig. C. 

Lent by the Conservatoire Royal de Musique, Brussels. 



46. 

Model of a cylindrical flute, in two pieces, without keys, giving /fl 
as its lowest note. Length from cork 34-5 inches. Diameter of 
bore i - 02 inch. See plate I., fig. B. 

Lent by the Conservatoire Royal de Musique, Brussels. 



CLASS— FLUTES. 29 



47. 

Model of a cylindrical flute, in two pieces, without keys, giving e \> 
as its lowest note. Length from cork 38*4 inches. Diameter of 
bore ro2 inch. The holes for the third fingers are double. See 
plate I., fig. A. 

No person of ordinary stature could play on this flute without 
assistance in stopping the holes, the distance from the lowest hole 
to the mouth-hole being 3C5 inches. 

Lent by the Conservatoire Royal de JMttsique, Brussels. 

The models numbered 45, 46, and 47 are exact copies of original 
instruments preserved in the Musee Communal at Verona. Similar 
flutes are described by Mersenne. 

48. 

Copies of a pair of fifes in g'. The originals are in the Carolino 
Augustcum at Salzburg. 

Lent by the Conservatoire Royal de Musique, Brussels. 



EIGHTEENTH CENTURY. 



49. 

Concert-flute of box-wood, with tips and cap of black horn, and 
one brass square-flapped key. This is undoubtedly the oldest conoidal 
flute in the collection. It is in four "joints," the second of which is 
marked " 2," and was probably the flattest but one of an uncertain 
number of interchangeable joints of different lengths. Such " corps de 
rcchange " were in general use before the invention of the tuning slide. 
As the flute stands at present, its a', blown at the mean between 
possible sharpness and flatness, has 440 vibrations. There is no screw- 
stopper. This instrument was once the property of the celebrated 
Johann Joachim Quantz, Chamber-musician to Frederick the Second, 
King of Prussia, from 1741 until his death in 1773. Above the name 



30 CATALOGUE OF MUSICAL INSTRUMENTS. 

of the maker, F. Boie, the word " Quantz " is written in ink. See 
plate I., fig. G. In the year 1726, while staying in Paris, Quantz 
invented a second d'§ key, not only in order to make the enharmonic 
difference between d$ and e\>, but also to improve many other notes 
of the scale. After the date of this invention, of which he was exceed- 
ingly proud, Quantz always played on a two-keyed flute ; it is, therefore, 
almost certain that the instrument under discussion was made prior to 
1726, and it is at least probable that it was in his possession before 
he left Dresden for Rome in 1724. It was presented to the late 
Mr. Carli Zoeller, by Herr Albert Quantz, of Gottingen, grand-nephew 
of J- J- Quantz. 

Lent by Mrs. Carli Zoeller. 



50. 

Concert-flute of box-wood, with tips and cap of ivory, and two 
square-flapped silver keys on knobs, one being the ordinary closed d'§ 
key, the other an open key, with a double lever, to close the d' hole 
and thus to cause the open end of the flute to give c'§. The second 
joint is marked " 4," and was evidently one of several interchangeable 
joints. By Biglioni of Rome, 1725 ante. 

This instrument was also obtained from Herr Albert Quantz by 
Mr. Carli Zoeller. It is believed to have been brought from Rome 
by J- J- Quantz when he left that city in 1725. It has been but little 
used, which is probably owing to the poverty of its tone, and to the 
fact that Quantz objected strongly to the flute being carried below d'. 

Lent by Mrs. Zoeller. 



51. 

Flute of decorated ivory, with one key. Each of the four "joints " 
is made up of several pieces. There is neither tuning slide nor screw- 
cork. This flute is exactly a semitone higher than the Boie flute 
(No. 49) ; it was probably made at about the same time and place, 
and was no doubt intended for an c'\> flute. 

Lent by the Rev. F. W. Galpin, M.A., F.L S. 



CLASS— FLUTES. 31 



52. 

Concert-flute of box-wood, with tips of black horn, and one 
square-flapped brass key. Probably made in Germany. 

Lent by the Rev. F. W. Galpin, M.A., F.L.S. 

53. 

Concert-flute of box-wood, with ivory tips and cap, in four pieces. 
One square-flapped silver key. The proportions of the bore are very 
peculiar, the diameter at the cork being "74 inch ; at the lower end of 
the head-joint, "72 inch ; and at the upper end of the second joint, 
•79 inch. The a' of this flute has but 400 vibrations, 3 vibrations 
below our present g', but as this pitch is almost identical with that 
of the flute described by Henri Lambert in his celebrated paper (Obser- 
vations sur des flutes, Paris, 1775), it may be assumed that the instrument 
under description was a concert-flute of the period. It bears the name 
" T. Lot," above a lion rampant. Thomas Lot was one of five "maitrcs 
constructeurs " of wind-instruments established in Paris in 1752. He was 
a member of the " corporation des luthicrs " of that city in 1770, and he 
was still carrying on his business in 1785. The late Mr. Carli Zoeller, 
of whose collection this instrument formed part, estimated the date of 
its manufacture to be about 1756. 

Lent by the Rev. F. W. Galpin. M.A., F.L.S. 

54. 

Flute d'amour of box-wood, in four pieces, with conoidal bore, and 
one brass key. There are no tips or mountings of any kind, nor is 
there any screw to the cork. Length from cork, 27*3 inches. Interior 
diameter of head-joint, 78 inch. The a and e holes are bored obliquely, 
thus practically increasing their distance from the mouth-hole. The a' 
(/'$ in sound) has 360 vibrations. By Oberlender. This flute is sup- 
posed to have been the property of the celebrated violoncellist Krafft, 
or Kraft, a member of Haydn's band. The name " Krafft " is written 
inside the cap. 

Lent by the Rev. F. W. Galpin, M.A., F.L.S. 



32 CATALOGUE OF MUSICAL INSTRUMENTS. 

55. 

Concert-flute of ivory, with four square-flapped silver keys, 
mounted on " knobs," furnished with leathers. This instrument has 
a screw-stopper but no tuning slide. Its pitch is about a semitone 
below the present English pitch. By Cahusac of London, 1780 circa. 

Lent by Messrs. Rudall, Carte and Co. 

56. 

Walking-stick-flute of ivory, without keys. This appears to have 
been intended to form a flute at the upper end, and a piccolo at the 
lower, but it has evidently been subjected to injudicious experiment. 

Lent by the Grossherzogliches Museum, Darmstadt. 

57. 

Walking- stick -flute of light - coloured wood, with four keys 
fashioned in imitation of stumps of twigs. The /fc| key is for the 
right-hand thumb. The peculiar position of this key was first adopted 
by Dr. J. J. H. Ribock in 1784, but it never came into general favour. 

Lent by Messrs. Henry Potter and Co. 

58. 

Concert-flute of ebony mounted with ivory, in four pieces, with 
screw-stopper, and one square-flapped key. By Hoffmann. 

Lent by the Rev. F. W. Galpin, M.A., F.L.S. 

59. 

Concert-flute of ivory, with eight circular-flapped silver keys 
including the "long c" key"), furnished with leathers, and mounted 
on " knobs." This flute has a screw-stopper, and a tuning slide in 
the head-joint, consisting of a single tube of silver which slides in the 
unlined ivory. By (Richard) Potter of London. See plate I., fig. H. 

Lent by the Rev. F. W. Galpin, M.A., F.L.S. 



CLASS— FLUTES. 33 



60. 

Fife in a'\>, of German manufacture. 

Lent by M. Cesare Snoeck. 

61. 

Concert-flute of box-wood, with ivory tips, graduated tuning slide 
(the outer tube of which is covered with wood), graduated screw-cork, 
and six silver keys (including those for c' and c'tt), on knobs, furnished 
with plugs of soft metal. By (Richard) Potter, Johnson's Court, London. 

The graduated slide, the graduated cork, and the metal plugs were 
patented by Richard Potter in 1785, but tuning slides of various kinds 
had been in use for half-a-century before the date of the patent, and 
J. F. Boie, a celebrated flute maker of Gottingen, was the inventor of 
the metal plugs. 

Lent by Messrs. Rudall, Carte and Co. 

62. 

Concert-flute of box-wood, with ivory tips, tuning slide, screw- 
cork, and four silver keys with plugs of soft metal. By (Richard) 
Potter, London. 

Lent by Messrs. Boosey and Co. 

63. 

Flute in a, of ebony, with ivory tips, screw-cork, and four silver 
keys with plugs. Probably a b\? flute of its time. By (Richard) 
Potter of London. 

Lent by the Rev. F. W. Galpin, M.A., FL.S. 



NINETEENTH CENTURY. 



64. 

Concert-flute of richly-cut glass, with broad bands of silver, and 
five silver keys mounted on " pillars," including the long c" key. 
The keys have flat, circular flaps with leathers. This instrument has 

c 



34 CATALOGUE OF MUSICAL INSTRUMENTS. 



neither tuning slide nor screw-stopper. It consists of four pieces. 

See plate II., fig. C. By Laurent of Paris. Patented in Paris in 1806. 

Lent by G. Donaldson, Esq. 

65. 

Concert-flute of cocus-wood, in three pieces only. The tuning 
slide is formed at the junction of the head with the second joint. In 
addition to the ordinary eight keys there are a small key near the 
a hole, the purpose of which is doubtful ;a^f shake key, and a lever 
for making the shake with the b\> key by the first finger of the right 
hand. The finger-holes are unusually small for an English flute, the 
largest open holes being only "26 inch in diameter. By Monzani of 
London. On the foot joint is the number 181 1, but the date of 
manufacture is probably 1807 circa. 

Lent by Messrs. Rudall, Carte and Co. 

66. 

Concert-flute of box-wood, with ivory tips, and eight silver keys 
with plugs. This flute has the long / and c" keys, but is in other 
respects similar to that numbered 61. By William Henry Potter, 

London. 

Lent by Messrs. Henry Potter and Co. 

67. 

Concert-flute similar to No. 61, but the keys are wanting. 
By William Henry Potter, London. 

Lent by Messrs. Henry Potter and Co. 

68. 

" Flauto di voce," an alto flute of box-wood, with ivory tips and 
cap, and six keys on knobs, in a\>. MacGregor's patent of 1810. The 
head-joint is turned back so as to bring the mouth-hole more easily 
within reach, the double bore being cut in a single block of wood of 



CLASS— FLUTES. 35 



oval exterior. There is the usual screw-stopper, but no tuning slide. 
In addition to the four ordinary closed keys, for d§, /fl, g§, and b\), 
there are open keys for the e and c"$ holes, for the purpose of 
reducing the stretch of the fingers. The keys have the original pads, 
which are covered with leather, and are probably stuffed with sponge 
according to the terms of the specification. 

" A thin skin, stretched over a large opening at the side, almost 
opposite to the c"$ hole, imparts a reedy tone. No mention is made 
of this in the specification of patent, but it is known that some old 
flutes were thus made, in order to give a sympathetic tone somewhat 
like that of the hautboy, hence the name, voice flute." — F. W. G. 

By Wigley and McGregor, 151, Strand. Date on cap, 1811. 

Lent by the Rev. F. W. Galpin, M.A., F.L.S. 



69. 

" Bass flute " of box-wood, with ivory tips and cap, and eight 
brass keys on knobs. In d, therefore an octave lower than the concert- 
flute. MacGregor's patent of 1810. The head-joint is turned back 
on itself, by means of a curved tube of brass, in order to bring the 
mouth-hole within reach of the player. Besides the four ordinary 
closed keys, for d§, /fcj, g§, and b\>, there are open keys for the 
e, g, a, and c"$ holes, which would otherwise have been out of the 
reach of the fingers. See plate I., fig. K. The tone of the lowest 
octave is rather full, but that of the second and third octaves has 
an unpleasantly nasal character. The dimensions of a similar flute 
are given in the description of No. 70. By Wigley and McGregor, 
151, Strand. 1811-16. 

Flutes of this pattern were made in France before 1751, and in a 
volume of plates of that date, forming part of the great Encyclopaedia 
of Diderot and D'Alembert, there is a good engraving of a flute in g 
which closely resembles that described above, excepting that, of course, 
there are no keys for /, g&, or b\>. A similar flute, with an entire 
length of fifty inches, made by the celebrated Delusse about the year 
1760, is now in the Museum of the Paris Conservatoire. 

Lent by the Conservatoire Royal de Musique, Brussels. 

c 2 



36 CATALOGUE OF MUSICAL INSTRUMENTS. 

70. 

" Bass flute " of box-wood, similar to that numbered 69, except- 
ing that there is no cap, and that in place of the usual screw-stopper 
there is a solid ingot of gun-metal, with a deeply concave surface. The 
entire interior length, supposing the presence of an ordinary stopper 
correctly placed, is 43'5 inches. The bore is conoidal, its greatest 
diameter being ro7 inch, and its least "67 inch. By Wigley and 
McGregor, 151, Strand. 1811-16. 

Lent by Messrs. Rudall, Carte and Co. 

71. 

Concert-flute of glass. This instrument has the "long /key"; 
in other respects it closely resembles the flute numbered 64. By 
Laurent of Paris, 1812. 

Lent by Messrs. Rudall, Carte and Co. 

72. 

Concert-flute of ivory, elaborately ornamented, with eight silver 
keys mounted on " knobs," six of which have flat, circular flaps with 
leathers. The keys for c' and c'$ have metal plugs. The head-joint, 
which is furnished with a screw-cork, is in one piece, the tuning slide 
being at the junction of the head with the second joint. This slide is 
a "double cylindrical tube" of silver, which was patented in 1814. The 
specification sets forth certain apocryphal advantages alleged to accrue 
from the application of such tubes to all the joints of a flute, but this 
specimen has only the one above mentioned, the other joints being 
united by the ordinary "pin and socket" with thread "lapping." See 
plate II., fig. E. The pitch of this flute is about a semitone below the 
present English pitch. By Wood of London. 

Lent by G. Donaldson, Esq. 

73. 

Fife of box-wood, in b', no doubt a c" fife of the period. 
Lent by M. Ce"sare Snoeck. 



CLASS— FLUTES. 37 



74. 

Fife of brass, in e"6|, no doubt the/" of its time. 
Lent by M. Cesare Snoeck. 



75. 

Fife in g', by Carl Sattler. 

Lent bv M. Cesare Snoeck. 



76. 



Concert-flute of ebony, with broad fluted sil/er bands, tuning 
slide, screw-cork, and eight silver keys, on knobs, with flat circular 
flaps and leathers. The head-joint is fluted in imitation of an Ionic 
column, and is furnished with a silver lip-plate. The b\> key has an 
extra lever for the first finger of the right hand. By Monzani. 1815. 

Lent by Messrs. Rudall, Carte and Co. 



77. 

Concert-flute of box-wood, with ivory tips and one brass key. 
By Willis of London. 1815. 

Willis was the maker of the first flutes that were branded with the 
name Rudall. 

Lent by Messrs. Rudall, Carte and Co. 



78. 

Concert-flute of box-wood, with ivory tips, screw-cork, and four 
square-flapped keys of silver. By Wafford. 

Lent by Messrs. Rudall, Carte and Co. 

79. 

Flute u'amour of box-wood, tipped and capped with ivory. The 
tips are covered with silver. This instrument resembles the flute d 'amour 



38 CATALOGUE OF MUSICAL INSTRUMENTS. 

by Oberlender (No. 54) excepting in the following particulars : it con- 
sists of three pieces only; the pin of the upper joint forms part of the 
head, which has a screw-cork, the socket being in the middle piece; it 
has four square-flapped silver keys mounted on knobs. The pitch is 
almost identical with that of No. 54. Length from cork 27*15 inches. 
Interior diameter of the head 77 inch. By Clementi and Co. of 
London. 1819. 

Lent by the Rev. F. W. Galpin, M.A., F.L.S. 



80. 

Concert-flute of cocus-wood, with embossed silver tips, and eight 
cupped silver keys on knobs. The bore, at the upper end of the second 
joint, measures only 7 inch. Made by Cornelius Ward under the 
direction of the celebrated Louis Drouet, who was established as a 
flute-maker at 23, Conduit Street, for about a year, 1818. 

Lent by Messrs. Rudall, Carte and Co. 



81. 

Fife of box-wood, in g', in two pieces. By Christian of Amsterdam. 

Lent by M. Cesare Snoeck. 

82. 

Fife of box-wood, in a'\>. By Key of London. 

Lent by Messrs. Rudall, Carte and Co. 



83. 

Fife of massive iron, with seven finger-holes, including one for the 
left-hand thumb. A hole, which once existed in the middle of the 
instrument, has been neatly plugged with iron. The holes, successively 
opened, give the following series of notes, g' (from the open end), b', 



CLASS— FLUTES. 39 



c"#, e"\>, g", b"\>, c'"% (from the thumb-hole), d'"\. Evidently the 

work of a person totally unskilled in the construction of musical 

instruments. 

Lent by M. Cesare Snoeck. 

84. 

Concert-flute of cocus-wood, with eight cupped keys of silver, and 
an extra b\) lever for the first finger of the right hand, all on knobs. 
This instrument is branded : " C. Nicholson's Improved," but it has 
not the large holes of most of the Nicholson flutes. The head-joint is 
turned in rings, like the rails of an "early English" chair, and the 
narrow silver bands are embossed. By Clementi, London. 

Lent by Messrs. Boosey and Co. 



85. 

Concert-flute of box-wood, with ivory tips, screw-stopper, tuning 
slide, and six keys with metal plugs, including the 'V and c'jjl keys." 
By Astor and Horwood of London. The elder Nicholson preferred the 
flutes of Astor to those of any other maker, and his son, the celebrated 
Charles Nicholson, considered them superior to those of Potter. 

Lent by the Rev. F. W. Galpin, M.A., F.L.S. 



86. 

Concert-flute of cocus-wood, with tuning slide, screw-cork, and 
six square-flapped keys of silver, on knobs, including the "c' and c'fl 
keys." Four of the keys have leathers ; the lowest two have plugs. 
By Key and Co. 1820. 

Lent by Messrs. Rudall, Carte and Co. 

87. 

Concert-flute of box-wood mounted with ivory, in four pieces, 
with one key. By Millhouse of London. 

Lent by Mr. E. Cawley, Bandmaster 2nd Royal Scots. 



40 CATALOGUE OF MUSICAL INSTRUMENTS. 



88. 

Concert-flute of ebony, with thirteen silver keys, descending to 
the g of the violin. The extra five keys of the foot-joint are given : 
one to the little finger of the right hand ; two to the little finger of the 
left hand, and two to the left hand thumb. All the keys are furnished 
with metal plugs. The lower end of the flute is turned back, the 
reversed portion extending from below the 6fl hole almost as far as 
the d'§ hole. By Koch of Vienna. 1827 ante. Once the property of 
the well-known Sedlatzek. 

Lent by Messrs. Rudall, Carte and Co. 



89. 

Concert-flute of box-wood, with ivory tips and cap, tuning slide, 
screw-cork, and six silver keys, on knobs, including the " c' and c'$! 
keys." The last mentioned keys have plugs ; the others have flat, 
circular flaps, which, nevertheless, are furnished with stuffed pads. By 
Rudall and Rose, 15, Piazza, Covent Garden. 1830 circa. 

Lent by Messrs. Rudall, Carte and Co. 

90. 

Concert-flute of cocus-wood, with screw-cork, tuning slide, and 
eight silver keys mounted on pillars. Six of the keys have cups of 
shell-pattern. The " c' and c' § keys " have metal plugs closing on 
square plates. The holes are very small. By Sax pcre of Brussels. 
Marked " J. S." 

Lent by E. Hooker, Esq. 

91. 

Concert-flute of box-wood, with silver tips and cap, and eight 
silver keys, on knobs, five of which have cups with pads, while 
the three foot-keys have plugs and square plates. This flute is of 
Charles Nicholson's model, that is, a " large-holed flute " of its time, 
about 1840. There is an excavation for the reception of the left hand 



CLASS— FLUTES. 41 



first finger, as always used by Nicholson. Although the flute has 
the ordinary tuning slide and screw-stopper the cap is embossed in 
the same manner as that of the " patent head," which, by means of 
double screws, enabled the slide and the stopper to be adjusted 
simultaneously by merely turning the cap. This patent is dated 1832. 
By Rudall and Rose. 

Lent by Messrs. Rudall, Carte and Co. 



92. 

Flute of box-wood, in a'}>, in three pieces, with conoidal bore. 
By Collard and Collard, London. 

Lent by M. Cesare Snoeck. 

93. 

Flute of box-wood, in /', with tips of horn, and one brass key. 
Lent by the Rev. F. W. Galpin, M.A., F.L.S. 

94. 

Flute, in a'\f, in three pieces, with conoidal bore. By C. E. 
Purday, London. 

Lent by M. Cesare Snoeck. 

95. 

Fife of brass, in c". By Potter, London. 

Lent by Messrs. Henry Potter and Co. 

96. 

Flute of box-wood, in one piece, with six finger-holes only. 
In c". In outward form a fife, but with conoidal bore. By Potter, 
30, Charing Cross. 

Lent by Messrs. Henry Potter and Co. 



42 



CATALOGUE OF MUSICAL INSTRUMENTS. 



^ 



97. 

Concert-flute of cocus-wood, with conoidal bore, 
silver keys, &c. This is almost an exact copy of the 
so-called " Boehm flute," as made by Th. Boehm be- 
tween the years 1835 and 1846. It bears little resem- 
blance, either in the positions of the holes or in the 
fingering, to " Boehm's newly invented patent flute" of 
1831-2, but it differs from Gordon's flute very slightly 
in either respect, the arrangement of the holes being on 
a similar principle, while the fingering is only changed 
in the following particulars : — Gordon retained the old 
fingering for g§, at the same time preserving intact his 
system of open keys; Boehm adopted the " open g§" 
of Tromlitz and Pottgiesser. Gordon employed an open 
d'§ key, and governed the " c' and c'jjl keys " by the little 
finger of the left hand ; Boehm retained the old fingering 
for c', c' it, and d'§. The d" key, so useful for shakes, was 
invented by Capeller of Munich, Boehm's instructor, in 
or before 1811. The valuable d"§ key, which is not 
shown in the annexed wood-cut, was invented by Victor 
Coche of Paris, in or before 1838. (See No. 108.) 
The machinery of this flute, notwithstanding the old- 
fashioned screw-cups of the keys and the flat brass 
springs, is an indubitable improvement on that of 
Gordon's, but those parts of it which were designed 
by Boehm have long since fallen into disuse. Four of 
the open finger-holes are furnished with rings instead 
of the crescents used by Gordon. 

The wood-cut is an exact reproduction, on a reduced 
scale, of Boehm's engraving of 1847. 

By Rudall and Rose, 1, Tavistock Street, Covent 
Garden. 1844 circa. 

Lent by H. Veysie, Esq. 



No. 97. 



CLASS— FLUTES. 



43 



98. 



Concert-flute of cocus-wood, with conoidal bore 
and silver fittings. Ward's patent of 1842. The inven- 
tor's object was to construct a flute, on the "open-keyed" 
system, with greater mechanical facilities than had pre- 
viously been obtained, but although there are many 
points of excellence in this instrument, it is not equal, 
as a whole, to the inventions it was intended to super- 
sede. In some respects it bears strong resemblance to 
the flutes of Pottgiesser, particularly in regard to the 
four open holes for the fingers of the right hand, and 
the d'§ and g§ levers for the left-hand thumb. Its best 
point is the appropriation of the touches of the c' and 
c'B keys to the left-hand thumb. These keys are closed 
by traction-levers similar to those known to have been 
employed by Captain Gordon. Ward, " in 1839, began 
to make what is called the Boehm-flute in London," and 
he was the first in this country to make the valuable 
and now well-known " needle-springs." The flute here 
described has an extra &t] lever for the first finger of 
the left hand, and extra g § levers for the third and 
fourth fingers of the right hand. These additions were 
suggested by the writer in 1844. A lever precisely similar 
in its object to the extra b$ lever of this flute is now in 
use on the instrument numbered 108. The "stopper" 
of Ward's flute is moved by means of an excentric disc, 
within the head, which is connected with an index-lever 
outside. This moves on a dial furnished with numbers 
which correspond to others on a graduated tuning slide. 
The annexed wood-cut is copied from Ward's pamphlet, 
The Flute Explained, London, 1844. By Cornelius Ward 
of London. 1845 circa. 



■ o 



Lent by Messrs. Rudall, Carte and Co. 



No. 98. 



4+ CATALOGUE OF MUSICAL INSTRUMENTS. 

99. 

Flute of cocus-wood, in c', descending by means of two extra keys 
to a nominal b\>, a\> in sound. The foot -joint is turned back on itself 
similarly to that of the flute numbered 88. In other respects the 
instrument resembles No. 98. By Cornelius Ward, London. 

Lent by Messrs. Rudall, Carte and Co. 

100. 

Concert-flute of light-brown wood, with uncovered finger-holes 
arranged chromatically. An experiment of the late Dr. Burghley, of 
Camden Town, the first to suggest (in 1845) the idea of the well-known 
" Briccialdi b \, key." 

Lent by the Rev. F. W. Galpin, M.A., F.L.S. 

101. 

Alto flute of light brown wood, with six keys of ebony, giving 
a\) as its lowest note. The head-joint is bent back on. itself in order 
to bring the mouth-hole within reach of the player. An experiment 
of the late Dr. Burghley. 

Lent by Messrs. Rudall, Carte and Co. 

102. 

" Bass flute " of light-brown wood, with eleven keys of ebony. 
The head-joint is bent backwards like that of the flute numbered 101. 
An experiment of the late Dr. Burghley. 

Lent by Messrs. Rudall, Carte and Co. 

103. 

Concert -flute of metal, with silver mouth -plate, the so-called 
" cylinder flute." For the restoration of the original cylindrical form 
to the lower portion of the bore, and the union therewith of a head- 
joint tapering towards the stopper, Boehm obtained an English patent 
in the name of John Mitchell Rose (one of the founders of the firm 
of Rudall, Carte and Co.), in the year 1847. 



CLASS— FLUTES. 45 



The cylindrical part of the bore has a diameter of "748 inch. The 
diameter of the head-joint at the mouth-hole varies considerably in 
different specimens, but Boehm laid down a rule that it should measure 
•669 at the centre of the mouth-hole, and he considered that the lines 
of the interior of the head should form a portion of a parabola. The 
specimen here shown is of the original pattern, and was made by 
Boehm, probably about the year 1848. The fingering is the same as 
that of the flute numbered 97, but this bore is only adapted for holes 
of a larger size than the unaided fingers could conveniently cover, 
therefore it was necessary that every hole should be covered by a key. 
' Boehm's machinery for effecting this object is of the rudest construction, 
and extremely uncertain in its action, but, by the successive improve- 
ments of various constructors of Paris and London, the " stopping " of 
the keys has been rendered perfect. The holes vary irregularly in size 
from "46 inch, for the c" hole, to "54 inch, for the d' hole. The c'$ 
hole measures '535 inch. The distances between the holes are also 
extremely irregular, and appear to have been arranged on no system 
whatever. Until the year 1864 the best flutes of this pattern were 
made with holes, from that for c" % downwards, of the uniform diameter 
of "52 inch. 

The " crutch " for the left-hand thumb is a contrivance invented by 
Boehm for the purpose of rendering the instrument steady during 
performance. It is absolutely unnecessary, and has long been dis- 
carded in England, even by the few who ever used it. 

A flute similar to this gained, in spite of its imperfections, the 
Council-medal of the Great Exhibition of 1851. See plate I., fig. I. 



Lent by Alfred Hays, Esq. 



104. 



Concert-flute of metal. Crutch wanting. Excepting that it has 
a rude imitation of the " Briccialdi b\> key," and a hollowed mouth- 
piece of ivory entirely surrounding the head-joint, this instrument 
exactly resembles that numbered 103. By Theobald Boehm, Munich. 
1850 circa. 

Lent by Alfred Hays, Esq. 



46 CATALOGUE OF MUSICAL INSTRUMENTS. 



105. 

Concert-flute of cocus-wood, with improved "cylinder bore" and 
silver fittings. All the finger-holes are covered by keys. Carte's "1851 
flute." The object of the inventor of this flute was to " design a 
mechanism which should retain the open keys ... of Boehm's flute, 
and yet secure a greater facility of fingering," and he claims in his 
specification that "the fingering is easier than that of the Boehm or 
of the old system. It is, at the same time, a smaller departure from 
the latter." Mr. Carte gained a prize-medal for this instrument at 
the Exhibition of 1851. The construction of the flute will be best 
understood by an examination of the wood-cut (see page 47). The 
now well-known "open d"" first appeared on a flute, patented in 1850, 
which was the immediate precursor of, and which did not differ greatly 
from, the flute of 1851. In this same year a well-known amateur sug- 
gested a nearer approach to the fingering of the old flute, and to this 
end he had an instrument made with a "closed g§ key" and without 
the open d" key, in place of which he substituted the ordinary closed 
shake-key, but in other respects the same as the 1851 flute. In this 
form the instrument is still made, but it may be considered to have 
been superseded by the flute of 1867 (No. 106), which is vastly superior 
to it. By Rudall, Rose, Carte and Co. 

Lent by Messrs. Rudall, Carte and Co. 



106. 

Concert-flute of silver, with improved " cylinder bore." All the 
finger-holes are covered by keys. This instrument, which is generally 
known as the " 1867 patent " (see page 47), combines, in its fingering, 
the principal features of Mr. Carte's flute of 1851 (see No. 105) with 
many of the best points of the so-called " Boehm system." Its greatest 
advantages over the flute of 1851 are gained by the abandonment of 
the long /t] key of that instrument (see the engraving), and the 
substitution of the /fl of the " Boehm-flute." In tuning and tone it 
does not differ from other well-constructed flutes of the period. By 
Rudall, Carte and Co. 

Lent by Messrs. Rudall, Carte and Co. 



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CATALOGUE OF MUSICAL INSTRUMENTS. 






107. 

" Bass flute," or, more correctly, alto flute, of silver, 
in a, descending by means of the " c'§ and c'fl keys" to 
the g of the violin. The bore of this flute was designed 
by Boehrn. The position and the size of the holes, as 
well as the entire mechanism, have been arranged and 
most ingeniously designed by Mr. Henry W. Carte. The 
fingering is that of the flute of 1867. Length, from the 
face of the stopper to the open end, 3i'63 inches. 
Diameter of the cylindrical part of the bore i'035 inch. 
Diameter of the narrowest part (at the stopper) '906 inch. 
The finger-holes, with the exception of those for c"$ and 
d", have a uniform diameter of '744 inch. By Rudall, 
Carte and Co. 

Lent by Messrs. Rudall, Carte and Co. 



108. 

Con'CERT-flute of ebonite, with improved " cylinder 
bore " and silver fittings. " Rockstro's model." All the 
finger-holes are covered by keys, but five of these are 
perforated in the centre, an old French custom, so that 
partial opening may be effected when desired. The wri- 
ter's chief object in designing this flute was to perfect a 
system of tuning which he initiated in 1852 and im- 
proved in 1858. The system could only be carried out 
by giving all the holes, but the three highest, a uniform 
diameter of approximately '64 inch, and this was done 
in 1864. This method of tuning is now constantly 
employed, though not in its full perfection, on flutes 
with smaller holes. The general fingering of this 
model is precisely the same as that of the flutes 
numbered 97 and 103, but there are changes in, and 
additions to, the mechanism which afford certainty in action and 
facility in execution. Chief among the additions are the following : 
an extra /$ lever for the third finger of the right hand ; an extra 
b % lever for making that note without the use of the thumb ; a large 



CLASS— FLUTES. 



49 



hole, with a closed key connected with the ordinary 
d" key, which is useful in alternations of d" and d'" 
with certain notes below them ; a lever partly closing 
the c"H hole by the action of the second finger of the 
left hand, and thus giving an easy /'"^ in alternation 
with e'", besides other important advantages. The in- 
strument exhibited has the latest addition to the flute, 
namely, "the tubular extension of the c"$ hole," which 
was contrived by the writer in 1889. The advantages 
of this may be thus summed up shortly : the enlarge- 
ment of the hole greatly improves the r"$ as well as 
the d"jjl, and the added tube renders the hole more 
generally useful than before, while there are no result- 
ant disadvantages. The annexed wood-cut was made 
prior to the date of this improvement. Made by Rudall, 
Carte and Co. in 1877. Completed in 1' 

Lent by Miss G. M. Rockstro. 



109. 

Flute of cocus-wood, with four brass keys. In /'. 
By Rudall, Carte and Co. 

Lent by Messrs. Rudall, Carte and Co. 



110. 

Piccolo of cocus-wood, with four brass keys on 
knobs. In /". 

Lent by Messrs. Rudall, Carte and Co. 



111. 

Piccolo of cocus-wood, with six German silver keys 
on pillars. In e"\>. By Rudall, Carte and Co., 
23, Berners Street. 



Lent by Messrs. Rudall, Carte and Co. 



50 CATALOGUE OF MUSICAL INSTRUMENTS. 

112. 

Piccolo of cocus-wood, with six German silver keys on pillars. 
In /". By Rudall, Carte and Co., 23, Berners Street. 

Lent by Messrs. Rudall, Carte and Co. 



113. 

Piccolo of cocus-wood, with six German silver keys on knobs. 
In c"\). By Rudall, Carte and Co., 23, Berners Street. 

Lent by Messrs. Rudall, Carte and Co. 



114. 

Octave-flute (piccolo in d") of cocus-wood, with six German silver 
keys on pillars. 

Lent by Messrs. Rudall, Carte and Co. 

115. 

Octave-flute (piccolo in d") of cocus-wood, with six German silver 
keys on knobs. 

Lent by Messrs. Rudall, Carte and Co. 

116. 

Piccolo of cocus-wood, with four brass keys on knobs. In c"\}. 

Lent by Messrs. Rudall, Carte and Co. 

117. 

Piccolo of ebonite, with six German silver keys on pillars. In c"\>. 

Lent by Messrs. Rudall, Carte and Co. 
118. 

A SET OF TWO FLUTES AND A PICCOLO, of COCUS-WOod, with 

conoidal bore. " Boehm- fingering," with the open g§ key. The 
flutes are in c' |j and /' ; the holes of these are all covered by keys. 
The piccolo is in c"\>, and has ring-keys, somewhat similar in their 



CLASS— FLUTES. 



5i 



appearance to those of No. 97 but very much improved in their 
construction and action. By Rudall, Carte and Co., 23, Berners 
Street. 

Lent by Colonel Shaw-Hellier. 

119. 

Flute of cocus-wood, with four brass keys. In b'\>. 

Lent by Messrs. Rudall, Carte and Co. 

120. 

Flute of ebonite, in e' \>, with eight keys on pillars. Conoidal bore. 

Lent by Messrs. Rudall, Carte and Co. 

121. 

Flute of ebonite, similar to that numbered 120. 

Lent by Messrs. Rudall, Carte and Co. 

122. 

Concert-flute of cocus-wood, with " cylinder " bore, and eight 
keys on pillars. By Rudall, Carte and Co. 

Lent by Messrs. Rudall, Carte and Co. 

123. 

Concert-flute of cocus-wood, with conoidal bore. By Rudall, 
Carte and Co. " Radcliff Model." This flute is thus described by 
Mr. John Radcliff: — "The fingering is a near approach to the old 
system (eight keyed) but it carries out the modern method of vent- 
ing ; through the B and C shake being made by a separate lever, 
the C hole can be opened when the first finger of the right hand is 
down. It is contrived that the duplicate G § hole shall be closed in 
making the top Eft, so as to prevent the breaking of that note. This 
flute was first made in 1870." The woodcut upon page 47 shows a 
silver flute of this model. 

Lent by Messrs. Rudall, Carte and Co. 

D 2 



52 CATALOGUE OF MUSICAL INSTRUMENTS. 

124. 

Concert-flute, " Boehm Model," of ebonite, with German silver 
keys, closed gi. 1890. By Boosey and Co., who have kindly supplied 
the following description : — 

" The novelty in this instrument consists in the style of pad. 
Hitherto the centres of the pads have been prevented from bulging 
by being screwed down against a boss in the cup with a screw carry- 
ing a large flat washer. The pads in this flute are kept in shape by 
rivets and washers of aluminium, and the boss in the cup is dis- 
pensed with. By this means the pads are kept both very light and 
very air-tight." 

Lent by Messrs. Boosey and Co. 



( 53 ) 

III. 

CLASS-BAGPIPES. 

INSTRUMENTS with enclosed reeds, blown from a reservoir of air, 
and known at the present day by the generic term of " Bagpipe," 
are of very remote antiquity. They were certainly known and used by 
the ancient Babylonians, and in the many Sanskrit treatises upon music 
that are still remaining the bagpipe is described. It would appear 
to have been carried into India by the Aryans, and it is now known 
under the name of "Moshuq"; and in Southern India as the " S'ruti 
upanga." 

It is even possible that Bagpipes were used by the Hebrews in the 
Temple service, and upon an ancient terra-cotta, discovered some years 
since at Tarsus, in Asia Minor, is a representation of what is probably 
the bagpipe commonly in use at that period, about 200 B.C. By the 
Greeks the bagpipe was usually called a<TKav\og or ov;j.pwvia; while 
among the Romans it took the characteristic name of " Tibia utricu- 
laris," and it is said to have been a favourite instrument of the 
Emperor Nero, whose love for music has been noticed freely by 
Tacitus and other historians. Whether we should regard the bag- 
pipe as a Roman importation to this country or not seems an 
exceedingly doubtful point. But it is certain that it was very well 
known here shortly after the Roman conquest, and it is a singular 
fact it is mentioned by Procopius as the instrument of war of the 
Roman infantry. 

During the Middle Ages the bagpipe was used both in England 
and on the Continent largely, and appears to have been found in 
monasteries and religious houses, where it served as an accompani- 
ment to the chanting. An illustration of an instrument of this kind of 
the 9th century is given by Gerbert, Abbot of St. Blaise (De Cantu 
et Musica Sacra), and called by him " Chorus." The bagpipe appears 
to have retained its popularity for some centuries later, and to have 
been in general use, for on the Minstrels' gallery in Exeter Cathedral 
another representation of it is seen. This gallery dates from the 
14th century, and was constructed during the reign of King 
Edward III. The bagpipe is held by the player much as at the 



54 CATALOGUE OF MUSICAL INSTRUMENTS. 

present day. The single drone rests upon his left shoulder, the bag 
being beneath his left elbow. The instrument is inflated from the 
mouth, and he is holding the chanter and playing upon it ; the 
position of the hands is noticeable, the right hand being uppermost ; 
and the right thumb is evidently stopping a hole on the underside 
of the chanter. 

Of the advent of the bagpipe into Scotland or Ireland it is difficult 
to say much with certainty. It appears to have been, from very 
early times, a special instrument with the Celtic races, and a very 
interesting old Celtic pipe of the 15th century is presently described. 
This pipe appears to be almost the only instrument of that age in 
existence, and it is in a singularly good state of preservation. Its 
authenticity is beyond doubt. The bagpipe appears to have been in 
use in Ireland about the same time, for in an ancient Irish MS. of the 
year 1300, known to the late Mr. Carl Engel, is a representation of a pig 
gravely employed in playing the bagpipe. In the following century the 
pipes were in common use as a military instrument ; and Derrick, who 
wrote in 1581, gives, in his " Image of Ireland," a picture of a band of 
Irish warriors marching out preceded by a piper. The pipe in this 
case has two drones held over the left shoulder, and is inflated from 
the mouth. 

That the bagpipe appears to have come into Ireland from Scotland, 
is an opinion advanced by Mr. Walker in his Historical Memoirs of the 
Irish Bards (Dublin 1786), where the subject has been very fully 
treated of. According to Aristides Quintilianus, the instrument pre- 
vailed from very early times in the Highlands of Scotland. Mr. 
O'Connor, the eminent antiquarian, informs us {Dissertation on the 
History of Ireland) that one of the instruments in use amongst the 
Scots, or ancient Irish, was the Adharcaidh Cuil, that is, a collection 
of pipes with a bag, or rather a musical bag. We also learn that 
another instrument, of more simple make, called Cuislcy Ciuil, was 
employed as a means of marking the measure for the Rinkey, or field 
dance, of the ancient Irish. The Irish pipes used prior to the 
1 6th century were blown by means of a pipe held in the mouth of 
the player. The chanter had six finger-holes only ; and there were 
two drones. The instrument thus made was known by the name of 
Piobmala. Bellows for inflation of the bag appear to have come into 



CLASS— BAGPIPES. 55 



use in Europe generally about the 16th century ; Irish pipes blown 
thus were called Cuislcan, or elbow pipes. Accurate information con- 
cerning the development of the Irish bagpipe is, however, exceedingly 
difficult to procure, but it seems that the instrument underwent gradual 
improvements until it eventually took the form of the Union pipes, or 
Irish bagpipe of the present day. The name of Union pipes probably 
originated from the instrument having appeared about the time of union 
of the Irish and English Parliaments. 

In Germany the bagpipe was known as Sackpfciff, and Praitorius, 
who wrote in 1618 (Syntagma Musicum), describes minutely four or 
five different varieties, together with the respective compass and tuning 
of each. The largest bagpipe, he tells us, was called Bock, and was 
inflated by the mouth. The chanter had a compass of one octave 
from c to c' ; the drone was tuned to C ; in the Grosser Bock the 
drone was, however, a fourth lower, and sounded G r Another variety 
of bagpipe, called Schdffcr-pfciff, was smaller, but had two drones 
tuned to b\> and /', and the chanter had a compass from /' to/". 
Prsetorius tells us that the notes given by the upper finger-holes upon 
the chanter of this instrument were of faulty intonation ; the reason 
assigned being that there being no thumb-hole at the back, as in all 
the other bagpipes, faults of intonation could not be corrected. A 
smaller bagpipe, called Hiimmclchcn, possessed a compass extending 
from c" to c'", and had two drones tuned to/' and c". The smallest 
instrument of this kind was known as Dudcy ; its three drones were 
tuned to e'\>, b '(?, and e"\>, and the compass of its chanter was from 
/" to c"\ 

In Magdeburg and the immediate neighbourhood there was found 
another species of bagpipe, somewhat similar to the later Calabrian 
pipes, of which a fine specimen was exhibited in this collection. The 
Magdeburg pipes somewhat resembled the Schdffcr-pfciff, but sounded a 
third lower in tone. There were two chanters mounted in the same 
stock, that for the left hand giving the notes g, a, b\y, c', d', and 
that for the right d', e',f, g', a'. This arrangement allowed of simple 
airs being performed in two parts. 

The application of the bellows to the bagpipe appears to have 
originated in Ireland, whence it was carried to France, where the 
instrument eventually took the form of the musette, and was further 



56 CATALOGUE OF MUSICAL INSTRUMENTS. 

improved and perfected by Hotteterre the elder. The improvements 
designed by him consisted in the extension of the scale by means of 
keys, and the addition of a second chanter. The musette thus 
perfected rapidly made its way, and becoming popular and fashionable 
in the reign of Louis XIV., was introduced into the orchestra by 
Lully. A quartet of these instruments was, even in the time of 
Praetorius, not uncommonly met with ; but we are told that the 
"harmony" thus produced was seldom pleasing to the ear. At the 
end of the 17th century the musette became to wind instruments 
what the Vielle was to stringed ; and the many beautiful specimens 
that remain show us what wealth of ornamentation and skilled work- 
manship was lavished upon them. 

An elaborate tutor for the musette was written by Borjon, a dis- 
tinguished lawyer of the time, and published at Lyons in 1672 ; and 
that the instrument retained its popularity is proved by the publication 
of a similar work by the younger Hotteterre, known also as Hotteterre 
le Romain. This latter, Methode pour la Musette, was published at 
Paris in 1738 in quarto. The best makers of musettes were, accord- 
ing to M. LavoLx (Histoire de l' Instrumentation, Paris, 1878), the elder 
Hotteterre, Perrin, and Lissieux of Lyons. Towards the latter part of 
the last century the musette gradually became disused, and with the 
dawn of the 19th century disappeared entirely ; and specimens of the 
instrument are now of value as musical and artistic curiosities only, 
and as such are eagerly sought after by collectors. 

The Scotch Highland pipes are, perhaps, the best known of all the 
various forms of the bagpipe. The modern form is constructed with 
three drones, two of which are tuned an octave below the lower a' of 
the chanter; and the longer drone a second octave below. Some works 
give the tuning as G, d, g, and also D, A, d. The long drone does 
not appear prior to the 16th century, but of its introduction it is 
difficult to speak with certainty. The chanter of the Highland pipe 
is conical in bore, and is pierced with seven finger-holes, and a thumb- 
hole at the back. The compass consists of but nine notes, from g' to 
a" inclusive; and the temperament of the scale thus produced is very 
peculiar, there appearing to be no definite rule by which the result is 
obtained. The chanter has a double reed, rather like that of the 
bassoon ; the drone reed is single, and more nearly resembles that of 



CLASS— BAGPIPES. 57 



the Egyptain Arghool, or the primitive "squeaker" which children 
make from pieces of straw. 

The prominent feature in all bagpipe music consists in the em- 
ployment of ornamental or grace notes, termed by Scotch pipers 
" warblers." Such fiorituri are very commonly made use of, and a 
skilful piper will manage to introduce a "warbler" of eleven notes 
between the last up beat and the first down beat of a bar. The 
usual "warbler," however, consists but of five or six notes. The 
highest form of bagpipe music is the Piobaireachd, or, as it is more 
usually called, Pibroch. This is usually difficult of execution, and 
consists of an air or theme called urlar, which is made the subject 
of variations, three or four in number, and increasing in difficulty 
and pace. The air is occasionally repeated, and ultimately ends the 
piece. And the pibroch has been . recently adapted as a form for 
orchestral composition by Dr. A. C. Mackenzie, whose well-known 
and beautiful pibroch has been frequently performed within the last 
few years. The martial character and inspiriting nature of the pipes 
as an instrument of military music is so well known and so fully 
recognised that further comment is unnecessary. 



125. 

Highland Bagpipe. 15th century. This curious and interesting 
bagpipe consists of two drones and chanter finely ornamented with 
Celtic patterns carved in circular bands. The drones are inserted in 
a single stock, formed apparently from a forked branch, the fork giving 
the proper spread for the shoulder. Carved on the stock are the letters 
R. M C D. ; under them is a representation of a galley, and in Roman 
numerals the date M: CCCC: IX. The letters, both of the initials and 
date, are of the Gothic type in use during the 15th century. On the 
reverse side of the stock is a triplet of foliated scroll work. There are 
round the ends of the forks bands of interlaced work. The lower part 
of one of the drones has a somewhat similar band in the centre ; the 
corresponding piece of the other drone is not original. The head- 
pieces of the drones have each two bands of interlaced work, and they 
terminate in cup-shaped heads ornamented in the same manner. The 



58 CATALOGUE OF MUSICAL INSTRUMENTS. 

chanter, which has seven finger-holes in front, and a thumb-hole 
behind, very much worn, is also ornamented with interlaced bands at 
both extremities. The nail heads round the bell are decorated with 
engraved designs. The metal ferrules, with which the instrument is 
mounted, are original, and nicely engraved with Celtic designs. The 
drones and chanter are apparently made of thorn. The drones were 
tuned to A, in unison with the note given by the lowest finger-hole of 
the chanter when uncovered. See plate IX., fig. A. 

Lent by Messrs. J. and R. Glen. 

126. 

Musette, French. This beautiful instrument, formerly in the 
Tolbecque collection, dates from the latter part of the 17th century. It 
is blown by means of a bellows held under the right elbow ; the bag, 
covered with red silk brocade, is held under the left elbow of the 
player. There are two chanters of ivory (called Chalumeau) mounted 
in one stock ; the smaller chanter is fixed on to the larger. The larger 
chanter is pierced with eight holes, which give the following series : 



■ rH -L _j_. Uj=J=y: 



012345678 

the bell note being of course /'. There are seven silver keys, mounted 
upon knobs, which furnish the following additional sounds : 




5H* 



The first hole is made double, so that, by half closing, the/'ti can be 
obtained. The smaller chanter, fixed parallel to the larger, is flat, and 
has three keys upon each side, giving the following sounds : 

*^ 123456 

The keys 1, 2, 3 are worked with the thumb of the right hand, the others 
(shown uppermost in the plate) by the little finger of the left hand. 



CLASS— BAGPIPES. 59 



The drone, called Bourdon, consists of an ivory cylinder pierced 
with a series of channels of very small diameter, parallel to its axis. 
These channels are arranged by threes and twos, so as to form four or 
five separate single tubes of the proper length for the sound to be 
produced. The channels open by means of longitudinal slits upon the 
circumference of the cylinder ; they are tuned to the required length 
by means of sliders, termed technically " layettes." The drones are 
usually tuned as follows : 



3E 



or ft' \ —f 



It is interesting to note that the reeds, both chanter and drone, 
are double. This association of a cylindrical bore and double reed 
would be hardly possible were it not that the bore is singularly small, 
being only about Jth of an inch. As cylindrical tubes, thus employed, 
speak as closed pipes, the depth of the pitch can be thus accounted for. 
Plate IX., fig. F. 

Lent by the Conservatoire Royal de Musique, Brussels. 

127. 

Pastoral Bagpipe, French. 17th century. There is one drone 
only, tuned to the lowest hole of the chanter uncovered. The bag is 
inflated by the mouth, and when in use is held on the left breast. 

Lent by Messrs. J. and R. Glen. 

128. 

Musette, French. 17th century. This instrument is very similar 
to that previously described, and appears to be of much the same 
date. The barrel and chanters are of ebony, with ivory tips most 
artistically worked. The bag is covered with yellow silk brocade and 
fringed with gold lace. The " Grand Chalumeau " is fitted with five 
keys only, the " Petit Chalumeau " with six. The barrel has no less 
than thirteen sliders, and is apparently made to hold six instead of 
five reeds. 

Lent by C. Van Raalte, Esq. 



60 CATALOGUE OF MUSICAL INSTRUMENTS. 

129. 

Musette, French. 17th century. This beautiful instrument is 
in tuning and make identical with No. 126. The chanters, however, 
are of ebony, with ivory tips. The barrel differs slightly from that 
of No. 126, in that it has spaces for four reeds only. The bag is 
covered with silk brocade and edged with black silk fringe. It is 
inflated by bellows, the sides of which are beautifully inlaid with 
devices of fruit, flowers, and butterflies. 

Lent by Messrs. J. and R. Glen. 

130. 

Cornemuse, French. 17th century. The cornemuse differs from 
the musette, in that it is of simpler construction, and is inflated from 
the mouth. The drone and chanter are of ivory, and are fixed parallel 
in one stock. The chanter is pierced with nine finger-holes in front 
and a thumb-hole at back. The drone was tuned by means of a 
stopper. The bag is covered with red silk brocade, worked with 
flowers and fringed with gold lace. 

The usual compass of the cornemuse was 



i 



or to the e" above, the drone being tuned in unison with c\ The 
cornemuse frequently had another drone, giving the octave lower, 
mounted in a separate stock. Instruments of this description were 
in use in the 16th and 17th centuries, and were usually played in 
consort with other wind instruments called in France " Hautbois 
de Poitou," the reeds of which were enclosed within a cap, as in 
the cromorne. Pere Mersenne, in his Harmonie Univcrselle, gives a 
Cantilena in four parts, the upper of which is taken by the cornemuse, 
the others by the instruments just mentioned. Plate IX., fig. E. 
Lent by C. Van Raalte, Esq. 

131. 

Lowland Bagpipe, Scotch. iSth century. The bag is covered 
with red velvet, and is inflated by the mouth. The chanter, made of 



CLASS— BAGPIPES. 



61 



light red wood and tipped with horn, contains seven finger-holes and 
a thumb-hole at the back. The three drones, of the same wood, are 
tipped with ivory, beautifully engraved, and are mounted in one stock. 
The Lowland bagpipe is tuned like the modern Highland pipe, the 
drones, two tenor and one bass, being tuned to a and A, in accord 
with the lowest finger-hole on the chanter when uncovered. 



Lent by Messrs. J. and R. Glen. 



132. 



Calabrian Bagpipe. The bag is of goatskin, with very long hair, 
and is inflated by the mouth. The chanters and the drones are all 
fixed in one stock. The chanter for the left hand contains three 
finger-holes and a thumb-hole ; that for the right hand is somewhat 
larger, and has three finger-holes, and a key for the low note, enclosed 
within a box as in the old bass Pommer. The two drones are 
somewhat shorter, and are evidently tuned in octaves. The workman- 
ship is curious, and is apparently of the early part of the 18th century. 

Lent by Messrs. J. and R. Glen. 



133. 

Union Pipes, or Irish Bagpipe. The chanter is of ebony, contain- 
ing seven finger-holes and a thumb-hole ; there are eight brass keys. 
The drones are mounted all in one stock. The bag is. covered with 
green velvet, and is inflated by means of bellows. The instrument is 
stamped " Kernia, Dublin." The chanter has a chromatic scale of 
two octaves as follows : 



I 



£ 



The drones are tuned to A of different octaves ; and the regulators, 

i.e. the parts other than the chanter having keys, give the following : 

Longest. Medium. Shortest. 

5E 



wm 



w 



m± 



* 



m 



p 



62 CATALOGUE OF MUSICAL INSTRUMENTS. 



and this arrangement, which allows of a rude harmony of tonic and 
dominant chords, is manipulated by the elbow of the player. 

Lent by Messrs. J. and R. Glen. 

134. 

Union Pipes, or Irish Bagpipes. Stamped " Kernia, Dublin." 
iSth century. This instrument is, in general construction, very similar 
to that previously described. There are, however, only two regulators 
instead of three, as in the last specimen. See plate IX., fig. D. 

Lent by G. Butler, Esq. 

135. 

Bignou, or Breton Bagpipe. The word " Bignou " is derived 
from a Breton word, bigno (= se rentier beaucoup). The bag is of 
rough leather, inflated by the mouth. The drone is ornamented with 
tin, rather curiously worked ; the chanter contains seven finger-holes, 
and is apparently constructed for either a left or right handed player. 
The drone is tuned to the lowest hole of the chanter uncovered. 

Lent by Messrs. Rudall, Carte and Co. 

136. 

Northumbrian or Border Bagpipe. This beautiful instrument 
is mounted with silver and ivory. The chanter, which is of black 
wood, is pierced with seven holes in front and a thumb-hole behind. 
The chanter is stopped at the lower end, so that when all the holes 
are closed the pipe is silent. There are seven flat silver keys, working 
.upon knobs, and giving g", /"$, c"§, b', d', c'. The compass is from 



to 




There are four drones, of ivory, mounted in one stock. These drones 
are tuned by means of stoppers, and are provided with an arrange- 
ment so that any one can be shut off at will. They are tuned usually 
to the tonic and dominant of the natural scale. The drones are 



CLASS— BAGPIPES. 63 



ornamented by long streamers of blue silk ; the bag is covered with 
purple velvet, and is inflated by bellows. 18th century. See plate IX., 
fig. C. 

Lent by the Rev. F. W. Gal pin, M.A., F.L.S. 

137. 

Northumbrian or Border Bagpipe. This instrument has a 
chanter of ebony, pierced with seven finger-holes and a thumb-hole ; 
there are seven brass keys. The drones are four in number, tuned by 
means of stoppers, made of ivory, tipped with silver. The compass 
and construction of this pipe is similar to No. 136. 18th century. 

Lent by Messrs. Kohler and Son. 

138. 

Northumbrian or Border Bagpipe. This instrument has a 
chanter of ivory, with seven finger-holes and a thumb-hole at the 
back. There are three drones, mounted in one stock, and tuned by 
means of stoppers. The instrument is inflated by bellows, and is 
probably of the early part of the 18th century. 

Lent by Messrs. J. and R. Glen. 



( ch ) 

IV. 

CLASS- REED INSTRUMENTS. 

Family : Double reeds, (a) with conical bore. 

INSTRUMENTS in which the sound is produced by means of a 
double reed vibrating between the lips, and set in motion by 
a current of air, are of great antiquity. The origin of the double 
reed is decidedly prehistoric, and in Eastern countries it is known to 
have existed from very remote ages. The double reed is found in 
China and Japan, as well as in India, Arabia, and other Mohamedan 
countries. It is mentioned in the Sanskrit musical treatises, and 
traces of its use may be found among the sculptures and paintings 
of the ancient Assyrians. Its employment among the ancient Greeks 
is no less certain ; it was at a very early period adopted into Italy, 
probably by the Tarentines ; and from Italy it very possibly became 
generally used throughout Europe. 

At first applied to pipes of short length, and almost invariably of 
conical bore, the double reed became gradually applied to instruments 
of better make and more accurate intonation, and the reed instru- 
ments used during the latter days of the Greek supremacy were of 
very fine workmanship. There are, fortunately, several fine examples 
of these ancient instruments in different museums which show this to 
have been the case. 

To trace the gradual development of instruments of the double 
reed family through successive ages is beyond the scope of this Cata- 
logue ; suffice it to say that for a long time the principal instrument 
makers were Italians, and the art of instrument making had as early 
as the 13th century risen to a very high standard. 

The reeds used in these early times were generally rather hard 
and difficult to manage. To render them more manageable they were 
placed in a sort of case, called pirouette, which covered the lower part 
of the reed ; and this, when the lips were pressed against it, assured 
that the reed was inserted the proper distance into the mouth. The 
use of the pirouette was not, however, universal, and probably depended 
to a great extent upon the capability of the player. And it is curious 



CLASS— REED INSTRUMENTS. 65 

to note that contrivances of a somewhat similar kind are found in 
the primitive oboes of China, India, and Arabia. The reeds were 
usually wider and shorter than is now the case, and it was not until 
the 16th century, when instruments of this family were adopted into 
the orchestra, that the construction of the reed became the subject 
of serious study ; and the delicate reed of the present day offers a 
curious contrast even to the reed of the last century. 

In the 12th and following centuries the double reed was frequently 
placed within a box, and the lips were therefore unable to control 
its vibrations. One family of instruments thus sounded was usually 
known by the name of cromorne or toumebout from the fact of the 
lower end being turned vertically upwards. As, however, a cylindrical 
bore was applied to them, they will be noticed more particularly 
in a subsequent place. The Hautbois de Poitou, of conical bore, of 
which Mersenne speaks, were sounded in a very similar manner. 
There was a complete family of them ; they differed from the ordi- 
nary schalmeys merely in the construction of the reed, and by the 
coarseness of their tone. They were chiefly used as out-of-door 
instruments, the bass being supplied by a comemuse or species of 
bagpipe. 

As was the custom during the 14th, 15th, and 16th centuries, 
instruments with double reeds were constructed in various sizes so 
as to form a complete family. An instrument called schalmei, (or bom- 
bart when of larger size than the schalmei) is mentioned by Virdung 
(Musica Getutscht, 1511), and again by Luscinius, who translates 
Virdung's text and reproduces his engravings. From these it would 
appear that the schalmei and bombart were pierced with five or six 
open finger-holes, and that the existence of the double finger-hole 
near the bell was even in those early days common. In the bombarts 
there was a key, working within a wooden envelope, and by which 
the compass of the instrument could be extended downwards. 

These instruments do not seem to have undergone many changes, 
for Praetorius, writing in 1616, gives a minute description of the whole 
family. It consisted of — 

(i.) The little schalmey, which measured some 17 inches in 
length, and of which the lowest note was a'. It was used 
but rarely. 

ii 



66 CATALOGUE OF MUSICAL INSTRUMENTS. 

(ii.) The discant schalmey, of which the lowest note was d', 

and the length about 26 inches, 
(iii.) The alto pommer, the lowest note of which was g, and 

the length about 30^ inches, 
(iv.) The tenor pommer, which measured 4 feet 6 inches in 

length. It was pierced with six finger-holes ; four keys 

enabled the compass to be extended thus : — 



5P 

33j 



atrg: 



(v.) The bass pommer, which was 6 feet long, and resembled 
the tenor ; there were four keys, which gave : — 



S 



T- 



--r^ 



(vi.) The great double quint pommer, which was 9 feet 8 inches 
in length. It had four keys, which carried its compass 
down thus : — 






^T? 






All these instruments had a compass of two octaves, and the chro- 
matic intervals were obtained both by half stopping and by cross- 
fingering. They were all made with six open finger-holes ; the two 
smaller varieties had, in addition, a double hole for the little finger 
at the lower end. There were also two holes pierced in the bell, 
and which were not stopped by the fingers, but occasionally by the 
knee, so as to extend the compass of the instrument downwards. 

Towards the latter end of the 16th century, when Mersenne wrote, 
the larger pommers had been replaced by the bassoon or fagotto, then 
a comparatively recent invention. And the family then consisted of 
(i.) the schalmey ; (ii.) the dessus, or discant schalmey, which did not 
differ from that described by Praetorius ; (iii.) the faille or tenor; and 
(iv.) the basse. 

The discant schalmey became the oboe. The oboe, properly so 
called, assumed its present shape early in the 17th century ; and was, 



CLASS— REED INSTRUMENTS. 67 

according to M. Chouquet, first employed in the orchestra of the 
opera, in Cambert's " Pomone," in 1659. The two lower keys for 
c' and e'\f came into use at the end of the 17th century; the*double 
hole, for the little finger, near the bell disappeared, and in 1727 the 
instrument maker Gerhard Hofmann, of Rastenberg, added two keys 
for g'fy and a'§. Shortly afterwards the instrument was further 
improved by the brothers Bessozi, the most celebrated oboe players 
of the time ; and a speaker or octave key was added, which increased 
the previous compass of the instrument by an octave upwards. Still 
the usual form of oboe, up till about 1790, had but three keys ; and 
the third and fourth finger-holes were made double in order to allow 
of the production of semitones. The proportions of the bore had been 
considerably improved by the clever maker Delusse, and the position 
of the keys was made more accessible. The principal improvements 
are, nevertheless, the result of the present century. With the more 
general use of the instrument other keys came to be gradually added, 
and a Method by Sellner, published in 1825, at Vienna, shows that the 
instrument had then keys producing c', c'jjl, d'§, /', /'$, g'§, a'§, c", 
and also an octave key. The octave key was placed upon the upper 
side of the instrument, and still retains this position. 

The experiments made by Boehm in perfecting the flute led to 
the adoption, by the maker Buffet, of rings upon the oboe ; and further 
ingenious applications of mechanism were designed by the oboe player 
Brod, who was also a maker, about 1846, and by lengthening the 
instrument the lower notes were rendered better and more full. The 
Austrian maker Uhlmann, of Vienna, had about this time brought out 
a mechanism somewhat similar to the present Barret action, but 
which was so delicate and expensive that its use was never general. 
Turning his attention to the proportion of the bore, and the correct 
position of the holes, the late M. Lavigne produced, after many 
experiments, an instrument wonderfully perfect in intonation ; but 
which had, nevertheless, a tone-quality differing somewhat from the 
ordinary oboe, and on that account never came into general use. 
Shortly afterwards Triebert, the clever Parisian maker, following up 
the ideas of Brod and Lavigne succeeded in producing a model 
almost perfect, and too well known to need a detailed description 
here. Latterly further improvements made by Barret, and resulting 



68 CATALOGUE OF MUSICAL INSTRUMENTS. 

in the Barret oboe of the present day, have raised the instrument 
from its once humble position to that of the most delicate and perfect 
reed instrument that is made. 

The alto pommer appears to have developed into the cor anglais 
or oboe di caccia, which was at first made straight ; but, according to 
Fetis, the bells of these instruments were curved back. The principal 
improvements, however, were made by an oboe player of Bergamo, 
Jean Ferlendis by name, who was resident at Strasburg in 1760, and 
the idea of constructing the instrument with a bend or curve was due 
to him. The name cor anglais would appear, according to Mr. Galpin, 
to be a corruption of cor angle, by which name it was first known on 
account of its peculiar shape. The instrument has in the present 
century been reconstructed by Triebert about 1854, an d by Brod. 
The cor anglais, first introduced into the orchestra by Gluck in the 
Italian score of " Alcestis," was recognised by subsequent composers, 
and for special effects is a most valuable acquisition. Of the oboe di 
caccia in /, and oboe d'amore in a, it is hardly necessary to mention 
more than that both instruments were employed by J. S. Bach, and 
that within the last few years the latter has been reconstructed by 
M. Mahillon, of Brussels, first for the Bach Choir in London, and 
more recently for the Brussels Conservatoire. 

The tenor pommer became in course of time the basset oboe, an 
octave below the ordinary instrument, and was in general use in 
England throughout the last century. Attempts to re-introduce the 
basset oboe, or baryton, have been from time to time made within 
the present century, and the maker Triebert constructed an instrument 
of the kind for the celebrated player Vogt in 1825. Triebert's son, 
who succeeded to his father's business, made several more. At the 
Paris Exhibition in 1889 a baryton oboe, the work of M. Loree, was 
to be seen. The timbre of this instrument was singularly sweet and 
delicate, and it is to be hoped that composers will recognise its value, 
and not allow the baryton to fall into oblivion. And so we see that, 
even in this 19th century, the oboe family may yet be said to remain 
complete, consisting as it does of the oboe in c', the oboe d'amore 
in a, the cor anglais in /, and the baryton in c. 

From the unmanageable size of the 15th and 16th century bass 
pommers, and from their defective intonation, various endeavours to 



CLASS— REED INSTRUMENTS. 69 

produce a more compact and reliable bass were made. This led to 
the doubling of the tube of the pommer, which then became the 
fagotto. The invention is usually ascribed to Afranio, a canon of 
Pavia, and the earliest description is contained in a work entitled 
Introdnctio in Chaldaicam Linguam, auctore Thcseo Ambrosio, Pavia, 
I 539- The first instrument was constructed by Bavilius, of Ferrara, 
to Afranio's design. Superior to the old bass pommers, the fagotto, 
as it was called from its peculiar shape, became generally adopted, 
and was improved upon by Sigismond Schweitzer, of Nuremberg. A 
complete family of these instruments soon came into existence, and 
are described particularly by Prastorius. The smaller varieties were 
never much used, but the fagottino in F and the fagotto in C have 
lasted until now. The instrument, described by Praetorius, had only 
two keys, which gave F and D. According to M. de Pontecoulant 
{Ovgano graphic, 1861) the bassoon, like the oboe, first appeared in the 
orchestra in Cambert's opera " Pomone " in 1659. The compass had 
been then extended downwards by the addition of a key, which gave 
B,\>. This necessitated a prolongation of the bell; and the long form 
of the bassoon, as distinguished from the earlier fagotto, dates from 
that time. The fourth key, for G§, appeared in the early part of the 
18th century; and the bassoon in general use in 1751 seems to have 
had but four keys (L' Encyclopedic, MM. Diderot and d'Alembert, 
1751-1780). Additional keys were added later by the makers, Kusder, 
Wood, Preston, and Key in England, and by Portheaux and Adler 
in Paris. The instrument was finally perfected by the well-known 
maker Savary, who, indeed, became to the bassoon what Stradivari 
was to the violin ; and Savary bassoons are at the present day scarce 
and highly prized by players and collectors ; and the peculiar singing 
quality of tone of these instruments has never been excelled in bas- 
soons by other makers, before or since. 

Early in the present century attempts to construct the bassoon 
according to more correct acoustical principles, were made by Simiot 
of Lyons, and by Almenrader in Germany. And Adolphe Sax, in 
1840, produced instruments in which the holes were placed in their 
proper positions along the bore, and were all closed by keys ; the 
idea was that of Sax pere of Brussels, in 1830, but the first applica- 
tion of it was made by Adolphe Sax. 



70 



CATALOGUE OF MUSICAL INSTRUMENTS. 



In 1850 Cornelius Ward took out a patent for a bassoon which 
was constructed in four joints ; the " wing joint " was dispensed with, 
and the two tubes were connected by a U-shaped crook of metal at 
the butt, the " double piece " no longer existing. In Ward's bassoon 
all the holes (23 in number) were covered by keys, and, the bore being 
truly conical, the scale was rendered more regular throughout. As, 
however, players disliked the novelty of Ward's invention, it soon 
became disused, and the old Savary mo'dels have been since generally 
followed. The principal improvements of late years have been the 
work of Morton in England, and of Triebert and Jancourt in Paris ; 
and an ingenious application of ebonite, in place of wood, for the 
wing joints, has been recently made by Mr. Henry Carte. 

The attempts of Sax and Ward have led to the construction of 
bassoons of brass, but the only successful invention has been the 
Sarrusophone, invented in 1863 by M. Sarrus, and described subse- 
quently in this work. A somewhat similar application of metal for 
a contra-bassoon had been introduced by Schollnast of Presburg 
as early as 1839, and the idea was afterwards improved upon by 
M. Cerveny and by M. Victor Mahillon, both of whom had been 
working independently to secure the same result ; and a metal contra- 
bassoon, of an entirely different form, the design of M. Martin 
Thibouville, was exhibited in the Paris Exhibition of 1889. The tone, 
however, of all is greatly inferior to that of the wooden contra-fagotto 
or double-bassoon, which has been perfected by Dr. W. H. Stone in 
recent years, and is described particularly in another place. 

And here might be mentioned a singular application of a kind 
of double reed, consisting of two clarinet reeds placed face to face 




upon a clarinet mouthpiece having a double lay. This arrangement 
was designed and patented in France, in 1858, by M. Bornibus, in 



CLASS— REED INSTRUMENTS. 71 

conjunction with the well-known instrument maker Gustav Besson. 
The woodcut is a facsimile of that in their patent specification. The 
invention was called Neorganc, and the inventors' idea was to apply 
it both to ordinary reed instruments, as well as to keyed and valved 
brass instruments, such as the ophicleide or tuba. 



139. 

Discant Schalmey, in d' . This instrument is made of light brown 
wood, and has been so ingeniously repaired that it is now in perfect 
condition. The finger-holes give the following notes : — 



H 



33 



Ei 



*£ 



01234567 
The lowest finger-hole is made double, to accommodate a right or 
left handed player. The reed is placed within a pirouette. Length, 
including reed and crook, 26 inches. 16th century. Plate III., fig. B. 

Lent by the Conservatoire Royal de Musique, Brussels. 

140. 

Alto Pommer, in /. This is an exact reproduction of an instru- 
ment now in the Grossherzogliches Museum at Darmstadt. There are 
six finger-holes, and one open key, with right and left handed touch- 
pieces, and working within a perforated wooden envelope ; the key 
gives / when closed. The reed is placed within a pirouette as in the 
preceding specimen. Plate III., fig. C. 

Lent by the Conservatoire Royal de Musique, Brussels. 

141. 

Tenor Pommer, in c. This is a facsimile of an instrument now 
in the Hotel de Ville at Middleburg. The lowest note on the instru- 
ment is 



HH 

There are six finger-holes, and a key with right and left handed 



72 CATALOGUE OF MUSICAL INSTRUMENTS. 



touch-pieces for the low note. The intonation produced by finger-holes 
and key are as follows : — 

-r-r. 1 1 s ■— P — *~ &- 



± 

OKI 23456 

Length, including reed, 53J inches. Plate III., fig. A. 

Lent by the Conservatoire Royal de Musiquc, Brussels. 

142. 

Bass Pommer, in C. This is an original instrument, probably of 
the 16th century. It is stamped " G. Strehl " within a scroll, and 
belonged originally to a Venetian collection. There are six finger- 
holes and four keys. Two of the keys are disposed in front, and have 
left and right handed touch-pieces. Two of the keys are worked by 
the thumb, and are placed at the back. All four keys work within a 
perforated wooden envelope. The crook is of brass, and bent down- 
wards for the convenience of the player. The successive opening of 
the keys and holes gives the following series of notes : — 

OKKKK 123456 

Length, including crook and reed, 8 feet £ inch. Plate III., fig. D. 
Lent by the Conservatoire Royal de Musique, Brussels. 

143. 

Contra-bass Pommer, in G r This instrument is a facsimile of an 
old 16th century instrument, now in the Museum of the Hoch Schule 
fur Musik at Berlin. In general construction it resembles the bass 
pommer just described, differing merely in size. The successive open- 
ing of the keys and holes gives the following fundamental series of 
notes : — Z37~~ " ~> '" 



¥¥T^ 



S^S 



OKKKK I 2345O 

Length, including crook and reed, to feet. 

Lent by the Conservatoire Royal de Musique, Brussels. 



CLASS— REED INSTRUMENTS. 73 

144. 

Alto Pommer, in /. This is a beautiful specimen, and in good 
preservation. The key works within a perforated wooden envelope, 
and in general construction the instrument differs little from the alto 
pommer previously described. As the key did not close the hole 
properly the exact pitch could not be ascertained, but from a com- 
parison with the other instrument there was little doubt that the 
pitch was'intended to be/. 16th or 17th century. 

Lent by the Grossherzogliches Museum, Darmstadt. 

145. 
Bass Musette. This is an exact reproduction of a 16th or early 
17th century instrument in the National Museum at Munich. The 
conical bore enlarges rapidly downwards, and the reed is mounted 
upon a curved brass crook. The position of the keys shows an early 
attempt to place the holes at their correct acoustical intervals along 
the bore ; the tone is, however, exceedingly rough and strident. The 
successive opening of keys and holes produces the following series of 
notes : — 



S 



W^$ 



=3=J=#* 



Length 52 inches. Plate III., fig. L. 

Lent by the Conservatoire Royal de Musique, Brussels. 

146. 

Schalmey. This instrument is very beautifully made, and the 
proportions of the bore more nearly resemble those of the modern 
oboe. It is stamped " R. Haka." There are six finger-holes, and 
there has been a key working within a perforated wooden envelope ; 
the key, however, has been removed. The instrument gives the 
following series of notes : — 



P 



T? 



i-J-^4* 



33456 
Length, including reed, 38 inches. Plate VI., fig. A. 17th century. 

Lent by M. -C6sare Snoeck. 



74 CATALOGUE OF MUSICAL INSTRUMENTS. 

147. 

Fagotto, in C. This curious instrument, probably one of the 
earliest specimens in existence, is made of stained wood. The two 
tubes are bored parallel in the same block of wood. There are six 
finger-holes upon the front of the instrument ; they are disposed in 
threes, as in the old pommers, there being a gap between the upper 
and lower set of holes. One brass key, with double touch-pieces, is 
placed at the lower end. There are two holes for the thumb behind, 
also a key placed at the lower end. The two keys give 



23P 
3Z2 



W 



The keys both work inside perforated brass boxes. The crook is of 
brass, the bend not being curved as much as in the later bassoons. 
The lowest note is 



Total length 3 feet i\ inches. 17th century. 

Lent by the Conservatoire Royal de Mttsique, Brussels. 

148. 
Fagottino, in G (a fifth higher than the bassoon). This unique 
little instrument, probably of the same date, and in every way similar 
to the larger instrument preceding, is made of reddish wood. It is 
made entirely from a single block, the crook at the butt being 
protected by a shoe of brass. There are two brass keys, working 
within boxes of perforated brass, and giving F and the D below. 
The D key is made with two touch-pieces, to suit either right or 
left handed players. The compass of this specimen is from 



zoz: 



to 



P 



the chromatic intervals being obtained as much as possible by cross- 
fingerings. Length 25^ inches. Plate V., fig. C. 17th century. 

Lent by the Conservatoire Royal de Musiqtte, Brussels. 



CLASS—REED INSTRUMENTS. 75 



149. 

Fagotto, in C. This is an exact reproduction of an instrument 
in the Gesellschaft der Musik-freund, at Vienna. It is in general 
appearance similar to the specimens previously described, differing 
chiefly in the fact that there are four keys. The additional keys are 
made for the purpose of closing the thumb-holes, which are therefore 
able to be made of larger diameter, and also placed in their correct 
positions. All four are open keys ; the flap of the D key, closing 
over that of the E, when depressed shuts the latter automatically. 
The lowest note obtainable is C. Length 3 feet 2f inches. 17th century. 

Lent by the Conservatoire Royal de Musique, Brussels. 



150. 

Bassoon. With four brass keys of very early pattern. This 
instrument is made with a wing-joint, and in general shape resembles 
the bassoon of the present day. There is no maker's name. The 
keys give 



3E 



Length 4 feet \ inch. Early 18th century. 

Lent by Messrs. G. Potter and Co. 

151. 

Bassoon. Of maplewood. This very beautiful specimen probably 
represents the acme of perfection to which the instrument had been 
brought at the period when it was made. It is beautifully mounted 
with bands of brass. There are four flat brass keys upon saddles, 
giving the same notes as those of the instrument described above. 
It is stamped " Stanesby, Junior, London, 1747," also with the word 
" Muracus." The brass mounts are engraved with a coat of arms, 
and with the inscription " Ex dono R. Jenison, Armiger, 1747." 

Lent by the Rev. F. W. Galpin, M.A., F.L.S. 



76 CATALOGUE OF MUSICAL INSTRUMENTS. 

152, 

Tenoroon, in F. With four brass keys on saddles. The keys give 
Gfl, F, D, B/p. Stamped with the sign of a harp and the name 
" Blockley," but the shape of the keys and of the bell leads to the 
supposition, by comparison with Nos. 151 and 169, that it was made 
by Stanesby. Length 32I inches. 18th century. 

Lent by the Rev. F. W. Galpin, M.A., F.L.S. 



153. 

Bassoon. Of maplewood, with four brass keys. The keys give 
the same intervals as those of the foregoing specimen. Stamped 
" Caleb Gedney." Length 4 feet. 18th century. 

Lent by Messrs. Rudall, Carte and Co. 



154. 

Bassoon. Of dark wood, probably maple. Stamped " Kiisder, 
London." There are five brass keys, of the pattern of the period, 
giving the same notes as described previously ; the additional key is 
for the production of Da. Length 4 feet. 18th century. 

Lent by G. Miller, Esq., L.R.A.M. 



155. 

Bassoon. This instrument was formerly the property of the 
42nd Royal Highlanders (Black Watch), and its present owners 
believe it to have been used during the 1815 campaign. It is in 
extremely good condition, and is fitted with six brass keys on saddles, 
giving the following notes : — 



Si 



»n^n^: 



Stamped " Preston, London." Length 4 feet. 18th century. 
Lent by Messrs. J. and R. Glen. 



CLASS— REED INSTRUMENTS. 77 

156. 

Bassoon. With six brass keys working upon saddles. Two of the 
keys are now deficient. The instrument is very much out of order, 
but the keys were evidently intended to produce the same intervals 
as those of the specimen No. 155. Stamped " Millhouse, Newark." 
Length 3 feet £ inch. 18th century. 

Lent by Messrs. H. Potter and Co. 

157. 

Dulcian, in c. An octave above the bassoon. With seven brass 
keys on saddles, and bound with brass. The keys give ctt, Gfl, F§, 
F, Djjl, D. There is also an octave key in addition. Stamped 
" George Wood, late James Wood and Son, Maker, 50, New Compton 
Street, Soho, London. Invented by William Meikle." 18th century. 
Length 2if inches. The bell is rather curiously shaped, and more 
nearly resembles that of the earlier fagottino. Plate VI., fig. H. 

Lent by Messrs. J. and R. Glen. 

158. 

Dulcian, in c. An octave above the bassoon. Of stained box- 
wood, bound with brass, and with seven cup-shaped keys of brass 
on saddles, giving the same intervals as in the preceding instrument. 
Stamped " Wood and Ivy, late George Wood, 50, New Compton 
Street, Soho, London." The bell is slightly contracted internally, but 
outwardly resembles that of the former specimen. Length 21^ inches. 
18th century. 

Lent by the Rev. F. W. Galpin, M.A., F.L.S. 

159. 

Dulcian, in c. An octave above the bassoon. Of stained wood, 
with six flat brass keys, of early pattern, on saddles. The keys give 
G$, F§, F, £>$, D, B,\>. No maker's name. Length 24J inches 
18th century. 

Lent by Messrs. Rudall, Carte and Co. 



78 CATALOGUE OF MUSICAL INSTRUMENTS. 



160. 

Bassoon. Of stained wood, with nine flat circular keys of brass. 
The pattern of the keys is evidently that of a much later period than 
any of the previous specimens. The nine keys give 



^s^p 



=t 



tf 



the c$ key being placed at the back. There are also two keys for 
the production of j» 



Stamped " Wood and Ivy, late George Wood, 50, New Compton Street, 
Soho." Length 4 feet j inch. 18th century. 

Lent by S. A. Chappell, Esq. 

161. 

Bassoon. Of maplewood, with nine brass keys. The keys produce 

the same notes as those of the specimen described above; the pattern 

is, however, that of an earlier date. Stamped " Cramer and Key, 

London, Pall Mall." Length 4 feet £ inch. Late 18th or early 

19th century. 

Lent by Messrs. Rudall, Carte and Co. 

162. 

Tenoroon, in F. Of stained boxwood, and with ten flat brass 
keys on saddles. The keys give the following series of notes b, a, 
c§, G$, F§, F, D, and B,\>. No maker's name. Length 35^ inches. 
Late 18th or early 19th century. 

Lent by Messrs. Boosey and Co. 

163. 

Bassoon. This beautiful instrument is of maplewood, bound with 
brass, and is stamped upon every joint " Savary, jeune, a Paris." 
There are fifteen brass keys, and the scale is that of the modern bas- 
soon. This instrument belonged formerly to Dr. W. H. Stone, F.R.S. 

Lent by Cyril Spottiswoode, Esq. 



CLASS— REED INSTRUMENTS. 79 



164. 

Tenoroon, in F. This beautiful instrument is of maplewood, 
bound with brass. There are fifteen brass keys giving the scale of 
the ordinary bassoon. It is stamped upon each joint " Savary, jeune, 
a Paris." Length 375 inches. 

Lent by Cyril Spottiswoode, Esq. 

165. 

Tenoroon, in F, French pitch. This instrument is almost identical 
with the former, and is stamped upon every joint " Savary, jeune, 
a Paris." This and the instrument previously described are believed 
to be the only tenoroons in existence made by this great maker ; 
both specimens belonged formerly to Dr. W. H. Stone, F.R.S. The 
workmanship of both is very fine, and the tone curiously soft and 
mellow. There are but fourteen keys to this instrument. Length 
38^ inches. 

Lent by Cyril Spottiswoode, Esq. 

166. 

Bassoon. This specimen more nearly resembles the Boehm system 
in the arrangement of the keys. There are no open finger-holes, but 
there is an elaborate mechanism of keys and levers which closes 
28 holes in all, bored at their correct acoustical intervals. Hence the 
intonation is absolutely correct, but the instrument lacks the peculiar 
quality characteristic of the bassoon. This specimen is constructed 
of two separate conical tubes of rosewood, the lower ends of which 
are connected by a U-shaped tube of German silver, fastened by 
a spring. The instrument is stamped with the maker's name, 
"A. Marzoli, a Paris." 

The application of the Boehm system to the bassoon was originally 
due to Triebert, but experiments in the same direction had been 
made by Cornelius Ward in this country. This particular specimen 
once belonged to the band of one of the battalions of the 60th Rifles, 
but the extreme difficulty of keeping so complicated a mechanism in 
order, and its necessarily high initial cost, would alone render such 



8o 



CATALOGUE OF MUSICAL INSTRUMENTS. 




an instrument for military purposes 
of little practical value. It probably 
dates from about 1850, and its length 
is 52 inches. 

Lent by the Rev. F. W. Galpin, 
M.A., F.L.S. 

167. 

Bassoon. Modern. Of maple-wood, 
with ebonite wing-joint and 17 German 
silver keys. By Rudall, Carte and Co. 

1890. 

Lent by Messrs. Rudall, Carte and Co. 



168. 

Bassoon. Similar to the above, but 
made entirely of ebonite, and by the 
same makers. 

Lent by Messrs. Rudall, Carte and Co. 

169. 

Contra-Bassoon. An octave below 
the bassoon. This instrument resem- 
bles in general appearance the ordinary 
bassoon. The holes for the right and 
left hands are so wide apart that con- 
siderable inconvenience must have been 
caused to the player. There are four 
brass keys, working upon saddles, and 
giving 



ffi 



T- 



'■&-- 



but, in real sounds, an octave lower. 
The instrument, as regards arrangement 



CLASS— REED INSTRUMENTS. 81 

of keys, and the disposition of the finger-holes, does not differ from 
the bassoon of that time. It is stamped " Stanesby, junior"; and is 
the original instrument made by this maker for the composer Handel, 
and played by J. F. Lampe at the Marylebone Gardens in 1739. 
Length 8 feet 4 inches. 

Lent by W. Ringrose Atkins, Esq., F.C.A. 

170. 

Contra-Bassoon. Of stained wood, with eight cup-shaped keys 
of brass upon pillars, giving (in real sounds, an octave lower) : — 



Si 



^*Ws^ 



In shape it resembles an ordinary bassoon, but the bell-joint is of 
brass entirely. The lowest note upon the instrument is an octave 
below the C of the ordinary bassoon. Stamped " Stehle formals Kuss, 
Wien," and engraved " Kaiser K. Hof, Capellen Instrument." It pro- 
bably dates from about 1820. Length 6 feet 6 inches. 

Lent by the Rev. F. W. Galpin, M.A., F.L.S. 

171. 

Contra-Bassoon. This is the original instrument designed by 
Dr. W. H. Stone, F.R.S., and made under his immediate superinten- 
dence by Haseneier of Coblentz. This instrument is considerably less 
fatiguing to blow than the contra-bassoon as previously made, and 
which in shape resembled an ordinary bassoon. The air column measures 
16 feet in length, and the bore is truly conical, enlarging from £ inch 
diameter at the reed to 4 inches at the bell. As the tubing is curved 
four times upon itself, the outside length of the instrument is much 
the same as that of the ordinary bassoon. The compass of the instru- 
ment is as follows : — -• 

^= t arfE 

to 



including all the chromatic intervals. The instrument has nineteen keys, 

F 



82 CATALOGUE OF MUSICAL INSTRUMENTS. 

those for the first three fingers of each hand being saddle-shaped ; 
those for the little fingers and thumbs are of the usual shape. This 
ingenious difference of shape enables the player to distinguish " open " 
and "closed" holes; and, therefore, it is easy for any bassoon player 
to adapt himself to this instrument. From C, to F, a single sound 
only is obtained by each key. From F, to /, the same fingering pro- 
duces two sounds, an octave apart, by change of lip and greater 
pressure ; from /a to c' the scale is continued by means of the 
twelfth, using the fingering of b, and again increasing the pressure of 
wind. Plate VIII., fig. B. 

Lent by Cyril Spottiswoode, Esq. 

172. 

Contra-Bassoon. Of wood, and in every respect similar to that 
described above. This instrument was made by Mr. Alfred Morton, 
who followed the design of Dr. W. H. Stone, F.R.S., the inventor of 
this form of contra-bassoon. The construction of the instrument is 
similar to that shown in Plate VIII., fig. B. 

Lent by Messrs. Besson & Co. 

173. 

Contra-Bassoon, in F r This instrument in design is identical 
with those previously described, but is a fourth higher in pitch. It 
was made by Mr. Alfred Morton, for Sir Arthur Sullivan, for use in 
the orchestra of the Savoy Theatre. 

Lent by Sir Arthur Sullivan. 

174. 

Contra-Bassoon. Made entirely of brass, by Mahillon and Co. 
This instrument consists of a conical tube 15 feet 3 inches in length, 
curved round itself four times and a half. Fifteen keys, connected by 
rods to touch -pieces that are placed conveniently for the player's 
fingers to manipulate, open lateral holes pierced at intervals acous- 
tically correct along the bore. By the successive opening of these 



CLASS—REED INSTRUMENTS. 



83 



fifteen keys a complete chromatic scale is obtained, of the following 
range : — 



to 



3H^ 



in real sounds Zvo. lower. 



Owing to the length of the bore, and its large calibre, the octave 




No. 174. 

Contra- Bassoon of Metal, 




F 2 



84 CATALOGUE OF MUSICAL INSTRUMENTS. 



harmonic only can be obtained. Hence there are two octave keys, 
the use of which enables the compass of the instrument to be carried 
chromatically up to 



sounding an octave lower. This instrument, invented originally in 
Austria by Stehle, has been reconstructed both by M. Cerveny, of 
Koniggratz, and by M. Charles Mahillon, of Brussels. It produces 
a singularly rich quality of tone, and, when well played, is of 
great value, both in orchestral combinations, and as a reed-bass in 
military bands. In construction it differs essentially from the 
wooden contra-bassoons, previously described, in the application of 
the octave keys. The instrument is represented in the engraving 
on page 83. 

Lent by Messrs. Mahillon and Co. 



175. 

Three Sarrusophones. By Gautrot, of Paris. These instruments 
were invented originally by M. Sarruss, formerly a bandmaster in the 
French army under the last Empire. They consist of a conical 
tube of brass, curved several times round itself, and played by means 
of a double reed. The holes, all of which are closed by keys, are 
placed at the correct acoustic intervals along the bore. The fingering 
of these instruments has some analogy with that of the so-called 
Boehm clarinet. There is a complete family of sarrusophones, con- 
sisting of a sopranino, in e'jj; soprano, in b\> ; contralto, in e\j ; tenor, 
in B\); barytone, in E\>; bass, in B,\>; contra-bass, in £,b; and 
contra-bassoon, in C, or B u \>. 

The successive opening of the lateral holes produces a chromatic 
scale extending from 




to 




CLASS— REED INSTRUMENTS. 85 

By means of an octave key, and greater pressure, this scale can be 
extended chromatically upwards to 

if 



The higher sounds are formed by the third or fourth harmonics thus : 

■$rd Harmonics. 4th Harmonics. 



:|ry-^j-^p _^ p__ ^ — or 



Fundamentals. ' ' 

Fundamentals. 

The manner of writing for these instruments is similar to that 
employed for the saxophone. The inventor's idea was to replace by 
their use oboes and bassoons in military bands. But the timbre being 
so different, the invention was not largely adopted. They are never- 
theless of great use when sparingly employed for special effects in the 
orchestra. Massenet, in the score of " Esclarmonde," produces, by 
the use of a contra-bass instrument of this kind, an effect almost 
electrifying. 

Lent by Messrs. Besson and Co. 



176. 

Oboe. Of light wood, with two silver keys mounted upon knobs, 
giving d'§ and c' ; the d'§ key is made right or left handed. There is 
a hole in the bell, not closed by the fingers, and double holes for the 
third finger on the top joint, and for the first finger on the middle 
joint. Stamped " W. Millhouse, London." 

Lent by M. Cdsare Snoeck. 



177. 

Oboe. Of boxwood, with two silver keys on knobs, giving d'$ 
and c' . There is a hole in the bell left not covered, and double holes 
for the third finger on the top joint, and for the first finger on the 



86 CATALOGUE OF MUSICAL INSTRUMENTS. 

middle joint. The instrument is tipped with ivory, and stamped 
" Cahusac, London." 18th century. 

Lent by Messrs. Rudall, Carte and Co. 



178. 

Oboe. Of boxwood, tipped with ivory. There are six finger-holes, 
one of which is made double, in front ; also ornamented silver 
keys on knobs, giving c' and d'§. Stamped "Kiisder, London." 
Length 22|- inches. 18th century. 

Lent by the Rev. F. W. Galpin, M.A., F.L.S. 



179. 

Oboe. Of maple, with ivory tips. There are two silver keys on 
knobs, giving d'§ and c', and a double hole for the third finger on 
the top joint. There is a hole in the bell left uncovered. Stamped 
" Kiisder, London." Length 23 inches. iSth century. Plate VI., fig. G. 

Lent by Mrs. Zoeller. 



180. 

Oboe. Of boxwood, with ivory tips, with two flat square-flapped 
brass keys on knobs, giving d'fy and c'. There is a hole in the bell 
left uncovered, and a double hole for the third finger on the top joint. 
Stamped " Clementi and Broderip." Length 2.2^ inches. Probably 
about the end of 18th century. 

Lent by S. A. Chappell, Esq. 



181. 

Oboe. Boxwood, with two silver keys on knobs, giving d'fy and c'. 
There is a hole in the bell left uncovered, and double holes for the 
third finger on the top joint, and for the first finger on the lower 
joint. Stamped " Millhouse, London." 18th century. 

Lent by D. M. Carmichael, Esq. 



CLASS— REED INSTRUMENTS. 87 

182. 

Oboe. Boxwood, and ivory tipped, with two keys giving rf'tt 
and c', and a double hole for the third finger on the top joint. 
Stamped " Norman, London." Length 23 inches. 18th century. 

Lent by Rev. H. F. Armfield, F.S.A. 



183. 

Oboe. Of ebony, with beautifully carved tips of ivory. There are 
three silver keys on knobs, giving d'% and c', the d'jt key being in 
duplicate. There are double holes for the third finger on the top 
joint, and for the first finger on the lower. There is a hole in the 
bell left uncovered. Stamped " E. Terton." Length 22^ inches. 

Lent by M. Cesare Snoeck. 



184. 

Oboe. Of boxwood, with two flat brass keys on knobs, giving 
i'% and c'. The hole in the bell is left uncovered and gives c' ; and 
there is a double hole for the third finger on the top joint. Stamped 
" Goulding, London." This instrument was formerly the standard 
working model for Goulding's maker. Length 23 inches. Early 
present century. 

Lent by Messrs. Boosey and Co. 

185. 

Oboe. This instrument is made of ebony and ornamented with 
ivory. There are six finger-holes, one of which is made double, in 
front; also two ivory keys, which give c' and d'%. There is also an 
additional top joint for change of pitch. Stamped " Fornari, a 
Venezia, 1815." The model is, however, that of a much earlier period ; 
with it is a Venetian reed of the time, measuring across the top 
T 7 g inch. The reed used at the present day is much narrower, being 
only y\ inch. Length, with shorter joint, 22 inches ; with longer joint 
225- inches. 

Lent by the Rev. F. W. Galpin, M.A., F.L.S. 



88 CATALOGUE OF MUSICAL INSTRUMENTS. 



186. 

Oboe. There are six finger-holes, two of which are doubled ; also 
three silver keys on knobs, giving c', c'§, and d'§. The long c'fl key, 
for the little finger of the left hand, is apparently an addition of a 
subsequent date. During the early part of the 18th century the 
c'jjf was made merely by half closing the c' key. The c'jjl key first 
appeared in 1751. An old reed, of the early part of the present 
century, is attached ; width across the top f inch. Length of the 
instrument 22J inches. Stamped " W. Millhouse, London." 

Lent by the Rev. F. W. Galpin, M.A., F.L.S. 



187. 

Oboe. Of boxwood, with five brass keys on knobs, giving every 
semitone from rf'jjl to b'\>. There is a speaker key, in addition, placed 
on the top, and worked with a rocking motion of the first finger ; 
there are also double holes for the third finger upon the top joint, 
and for the first finger upon the lower joint. The bell resembles that 
of the oboe d'amore. Stamped " P. Power, London, Inventor." 
Plate VI., fig. B. 

Lent by Messrs Rudall, Carte and Co. 



188. 

Oboe. Boxwood, with ivory tips. There are six silver keys on 
knobs, which give 



P 



m 



=s* 



5= 



4 

There are double holes for the third finger on the top joint, and for 
the first finger on the lower. As compared with No. 187, it has no 
speaker key, but has the cross /' and b'\> keys (4 and 6), as in 
instruments of the present day. Stamped " W. Millhouse, London." 
Length 22J inches. Early present century. 

Lent by Thomas Bryant, Esq. 



CLASS— REED INSTRUMENTS. 89 

189. 

Oboe. Made by Mr. Alfred Morton at the conclusion of his 
apprenticeship to Joseph Uhlmann and Sons, of Vienna, in 1847. This 
instrument is very beautifully made in boxwood, and is fitted with a 
tuning slide. It is one of the best models of the period when it was 
made ; the only innovations made consist in rather a different shape 
of bell and lower joint, also the open /'$ key (which till then had 
not been used), and also the connection of the d'§ key to close the 
f'jjf key for the notes d", d"§, and c"$. In the Viennese oboes made 
at that period, the d'§ key had been used for these notes. The 
instrument is beautifully in tune. Mr. Alfred Morton's name, since 
he commenced business in England, has become well known as that 
of a maker of double reed instruments. > 

Lent by Mr. Morton. 

190. 

Models of Lavigne's Oboes. Models of oboes, principally experi- 
ments, but serving to show various devices imagined by Mr. Lavigne 
before he designed the model finally adopted and called by his name. 
These models passed after the death of Mr. Lavigne into the hands 
of their present possessor. 

Lent by J. W. Eagles, Esq. 

191. 

Oboe. Large bore, Boehm system, with modifications. Formerly 
the property of the late Mr. Lavigne, the celebrated oboe-player. The 
lowest note upon the instrument is 6 tj - Length 2of inches. 

Lent by Messrs. Boosey and Co. 

192. 

Musette, or Small Oboe. Of rosewood, by Triebert. Formerly 
the property of the late Mr. Lavigne. "Boehm" system, with 11 keys 
and three rings. Length 13^ inches. 

Lent by Messrs. Boosey and Co. 



go CATALOGUE OF MUSICAL INSTRUMENTS. 



193. 

Oboe. Rosewood. Part-made model of instrument finally adopted 
by Mr. Lavigne, to whom this specimen formerly belonged. This 
instrument was designed in accordance with the Boehm system of 
fingering. The conical bore enlarges rapidly, and the pad and finger- 
holes are unusually large. Its lowest note is 



T 



Lent by Messrs. Boosey and Co. 



194. 



Boring Bit, in wooden sheath. Formerly the property of the late 
Mr. Lavigne. Total length 27^ inches, length of cutting portion 
24^ inches. A specimen of a good tool of its kind. Evidently made 
for the production of the instrument shown by the model No. 193. 

Lent by Messrs. Boosey and Co. 

195. 

Oboe. Of cocuswood. 17 German-silver keys, rings and thumb- 
plate, descending to b%. By Boosey and Co., 1890. 

Lent by Messrs. Boosey and Co. 

196. 

Oboe. Of rosewood, to b\>. 17 German-silver keys, rings and 
thumb-plate, going down to b\>. By Rudall, Carte and Co., 1890. 

Lent by Messrs. Rudall, Carte and Co. 

197. 

Oboe. Of ebonite, to b\>. 17 German-silver keys, rings and thumb- 
plate, going down to 6|j. By Rudall, Carte and Co., 1890. 

Lent by Messrs. Rudall, Carte and Co. 



CLASS— REED INSTRUMENTS. 



9i 



W\ 



198. 

Oboe. Of rosewood. By Rudall, Carte 
and Co., 1890. 17-keyed fingering, with double- 
action g'§ and octave keys, and automatic half- 
hole action, going down to &[?. 

Lent by Messrs. Rudall, Carte and Co. 

199. 

Oboe. Barret's system. Of rosewood. By 
Rudall, Carte and Co. This instrument has 
double-action octave keys to make the transi- 
tion from one to the other automatic ; also a 
thumb-plate to close the c", and b'\> holes ; 
a lever by which the first, second, or third 
fingers of the right hand or the fourth finger 
(by means of the key heads making c" or c"$) 
can work the thumb-plate action ; double ac- 
tion g'§, d'§, and cross /'fl keys, and a lever 
for the fourth finger of the left hand to open 
the /' H hole. 

Lent by Messrs. Rudall, Carte and Co. 



200. 

Schalmey, in g'. Of dark wood, with six 
finger-holes, and an additional hole for the 
little finger, in front, and a thumb-hole at the 
back. The bell expands slightly at the mouth, 
and outwardly more nearly resembles that of 
the clarinet. German. 19th century. 

This instrument is the Piffero Pastorale of 
the Italian shepherds, and is still used in the 
Austrian Tyrol. Sometimes it is known as 
the musette. 

Lent by the Rev. F. W. Galpin, M.A., F.L.S. 



w- 



92 CATALOGUE OF MUSICAL INSTRUMENTS. 



201. 

Oboe d'Amore, in a. Boxwood, with three square-flapped brass 
keys mounted upon knobs. The keys give d'§ and c' ; the d' § key is 
made to suit either a right or left handed player. The instrument 
is tipped with horn, and stamped " P. Wolravpier." The hole for 
the third finger on the top joint is made double ; the bell is pear- 
shaped and contracted at the mouth. 18th century. 

Lent by the Conservatoire Royal de Musiquc, Brussels. 



202. 

Oboe d'Amore, in a. Of light wood, tipped with ivory. There 
are six finger-holes, two of which are doubled ; also two silver keys, 
giving c' and d'§. The bell is pear-shaped and contracted at the 
mouth, where it measures only if inches in diameter. Stamped 
" Bizey." Length, including staple, 263- inches. 18th century. 

Lent by the Rev. F. W. Galpin, M.A., F.L.S. 



203. 

Tenor Oboe, in /. Of stained rosewood. There are two flat 
brass keys on knobs, giving c' and d'§. Stamped " Millhouse, Newark." 
Length 28^ inches. 18th century. 

Lent by the Rev. F. W. Galpin, M.A., F.L.S. 



204. 

Tenor Oboe, in /. Of stained boxwood, with two flat brass keys 
on knobs, giving d'\ and c\ This instrument stands a fifth below 
the ordinary oboe of the present day. Stamped " Caleb Gedney." 
Length 34 inches. Early 18th century. 

Lent by the Rev. F. W. Galpin, M.A., F.L.S. 



CLASS— REED INSTRUMENTS. 93 

205. 

Oboe, in a. An old English watchman's waight or hoboy, of the 
latter part of the 17th century. Of light wood, with six finger-holes, 
two of which are doubled, and three engraved silver keys giving 
c'jf and d'§; the d'fy key is in duplicate to suit a right or left handed 
player. The ivory tips, with which this specimen is ornamented, are 
peculiarly large and heavy. The tone of this instrument resembles, in 
many respects, that of the more ancient schalmey, discarded in the 
previous century. Length, including crook, 25J inches. 

Lent by the Rev. F. W. Galpin, M.A., F.L.S. 



206. 

Basset Oboe or Baryton, in c. An octave below the ordinary 
oboe. Of rosewood, with four brass keys (including a speaker key), 
giving d'§, c'§, and c'tj. From the shape of the keys this instrument 
would appear to be of the early middle part of the 18th century. 
There is no maker's name. Length 39^ inches. 

Lent by the Rev. F. W. Galpin, M.A., F.L.S. 



207. 

Tenor Oboe, in /. Of boxwood, with three flat brass keys. The 
keys give c' and d'§, the d'§ key being in duplicate, for either right 
or left handed players. Stamped " Lindner." Length 333- inches. 

Lent by Mr. Cesare Snoeck. 



208. 

Cor Anglais, in /. Of stained wood, with nine capped brass keys 
on knobs. The keys give c", b'\>, g'§, /'$ (in conjunction with hole), 
/', d' §, c'jjf, c', and b. The body of the instrument is bent in the 
middle at an angle of 120 , and the joint is of ivory. Stamped " Kuss, 
Wien." Length 31 inches. 

Lent by E. Renton, Esq. 



94 CATALOGUE OF MUSICAL INSTRUMENTS. 



209. 

Tenor Oboe, in /. Of stained boxwood, mounted with ivory, and 
three brass keys on knobs. The d'§ key is in duplicate; the other 
key gives c' . Two of the finger-holes are doubled, as in the oboes 
described previously. The bell is very much contracted. Stamped 
"John Georg. Eisenmergen." Length 34 inches. 

Lent by the Conservatoire Royal de Musique, Brussels. 



210. 

Cor Anglais, in /. Curved form, covered with leather ; stamped 
" Fornari, Venetzia." This instrument seems to have only been 
repaired by Fornari. There are five keys, of which two are on saddles, 
and are evidently additions ; the original keys are upon knobs. The 
keys give b'\>, a'\>, d'§, c'§, c'. Length 30^ inches. 

Lent by the Rev. F. W. Galpin, M.A., F.L.S. 



211. 

Cor Anglais, in /. Curved form, covered with leather ; stamped 
" Fornari, Venetzia." There are eight German-silver keys, three of 
them having double levers ; they give c", b'\>, a'\>, /', d'§, c'fl, c', and b. 
There are two rings, which appear to have been added subsequently; 
also a speaker key. Length 30! inches. 

Lent by the Rev. F. W. Galpin, M.A., F.L.S. 



212. 

Cor Anglais, in /. With 12 cupped silver keys on pillars. Stamped 
"Brod, a Paris." The keys give c", b'\>, a'\,, /', d'% c'%, c', and b. 
There are two extension keys for the c'$ and f'§ holes, also an 
additional key to correct the /' $. Length 27^ inches. 

This was the instrument used by Brod himself, who was better 
known, perhaps, as a player than as a maker. 

Lent by G. Case, Esq. 



CLASS— REED INSTRUMENTS. 



95 



213. 

Cor Anglais, in/. Rosewood, with 12 German-silver keys 
and five rings. Boehm system. Marked "A. Buffet, Jne., 
Paris." Formerly the property of the late M. Lavigne. 

Lent by Messrs. Boosey and Co. 



214. 

Cor Anglais, in /. With 15 keys, rings and thumb-plate. 
By Mahillon and Co. The compass of this instrument de- 
scends to the itj of its scale. The mechanism is similar to 
that of the ordinary oboe, and will be best understood from 
the annexed woodcut. This instrument is very fine ; and 
the intonation leaves little to be desired. 

Lent by Messrs. Mahillon and Co. 



215. 

Oboe d'Amore, in a. By Mahillon and Co. This in- 
strument has been recently re-constructed for the Brussels 
Conservatoire by M. Charles Mahillon. In general appear- 
ance it differs little from the cor anglais previously described, 
while in timbre it is singularly sweet and mellow. 

Lent by Messrs. Mahillon and Co. 



No. 214. 

Cor Anglais 
in/ 



( 96 ) 

V. 

CLASS- REED INSTRUMENTS. 

Family : Double reeds, (/3) with cylindrical bore. 

THE combination of a double reed with a cylindrical bore, 
although of great antiquity, presents certain theoretical diffi- 
culties which have led to its disuse. The subject presents an acoustical 
problem of too complex a nature to be discussed at length here, but 
has been fully treated of by various acousticians at different times. 

That the use of the double reed, in conjunction with a cylindrical 
bore, was discarded in favour of the single, or arghoul, reed by the 
ancient nations is tolerably certain. And unless the bore is of small 
section, association with a double reed is hardly practicable. 

During the 14th, 15th, and 16th centuries instruments thus con- 
structed were in common use. Those most generally met with were 
the krumhorn, or cromorne ; the racket or cervelas ; the musette; and the 
sourdine. Of these the cromorne was generally played in sets, and the 
family consisted of four instruments, the respective compass of each 
being 



Bass. Baryton. Alto. 




i8i^8 



The krumhorn is described by Virdung, who also mentions an in- 
strument of very similar form, and which he calls Platerspill. And 
in a MS. of the 13th century at Madrid (Cantigas de Santa Maria), 
there is a representation of an instrument apparently of this nature. 
But Hans Burgmair, a pupil of the celebrated Albert Durer, gives 
(Triumph of the Emperor Maximilien, Vienna, 1516) a representation 
of two cromornes, the identity of which cannot be disputed. The 
instrument is mentioned by Prastorius, and, according to him, the 
larger varieties had some keys which enabled the compass to be 
extended downwards. The reed was placed within a cap, and hence 
was beyond control of the player's lips. The cromorne is again 
described by Mersenne, who states the best of the kind were made in 



CLASS— REED INSTRUMENTS. 



97 



England, where it was no uncommon thing to find pieces written 
for these instruments in four, five, or even six parts. From the fact 
of the bell being turned up at the end, the cromorne was known 
in France as tournebout. And from the numerous representations 
of these instruments, contained in old works upon pageantry, their 
popularity and general use all over Europe is evident. 

The racket, or cervelas, was a sort of bassoon, the bore of which 
was pierced in a sort of zig-zag fashion, in order to shorten the 
outside length of the instrument. The racket is described by Pras- 
torius, who mentions the existence of a whole family of these singular 
instruments, and gives engravings of them all. Their compasses 
were, he states, as follows : — 

Bass. Barytoti. Discant. 



3 



Cotttra-basscs. 

&so.lt>wir 



=t 



T- 



£ 



£ 

This instrument is described also by Mersenne, who calls it cervelat, 
a word signifying " a sausage." The larger varieties of them appear 
to have been furnished with keys, and specimens thus constructed 
are to be seen in the museum of the Conservatoire at Paris. Their 
intonation must necessarily have left much to be desired ; indeed, it 
is difficult to understand how they could have been played at all. 
During the last century an interesting attempt to reconstruct the 
racket was made, but with no success, by the celebrated instrument 
maker, Stanesby. Sir John Hawkins (History of Music, vol. iv., p. 139) 
thus describes the circumstance : — " Stanesby, who was a diligent 
peruser both of Mersenne and Kircher, and in the making of instru- 
ments adhered as closely to the directions of the former as possible, 
constructed a short bassoon or cervelat for the late Earl of Abercorn, 
then Lord Paisley, and a disciple of Dr. Pepusch, but it did not 
answer expectations ; by reason of its closeness, the interior parts 
imbibed, and retained, the moisture of the breath, the ducts dilated, 
and broke. In short, the whole blew up." 

The sourdine had, like the racket, a cylindrical bore, but the wind- 
passage had but one bend, and the intonation was consequently 
better. A family of these instruments is described by Praetorius, who 

G 



98 



CATALOGUE OF MUSICAL INSTRUMENTS. 



states that they were the work of one Lodovico Zacconi, and that in 
quality of tone they resembled the cornemuse, but were softer than 
the krumhorn. The compasses of these instruments were usually : — 



Contra-bass. 



Bass. 



Baryton. 



Discant. 



S-] 



? 



* 



**S3 



iifl 



An instrument of apparently similar construction is described by 
Mersenne, who calls it courtaut, by reason of its shortness. It had 
eleven holes, the vent being at the back, precisely as in the two 
specimens described presently. 

The cornemuse, although in a sense belonging to this family, was 
sounded from a reservoir of air, and has therefore been described 
particularly in the section of this work devoted to bagpipes. 



216. 

Sourdine. A bass instrument having a cylindrical bore. The 
wind-passage is of very small diameter, and is constructed of two 
parallel channels, which communicate at the lower end, and are cut 
in the same block of wood. The total length of the column of air 
thus formed is 44 inches, inclusive of crook and reed. The crook is 
of brass, and the reed resembles that of a bassoon. There are six 
open finger-holes of very small diameter, and a number of brass keys 
which work within wooden boxes, the tops of which are made to slide 
off, to allow access to the keys. The instrument measures, outside, 
33 inches ; and the lower portion is made to serve the double purpose 
of a box for spare reeds, and for a rest. The successive opening of 
the keys and finger-holes produces the following series : — 



g± 



w 



4^4: 



^T~* 



:*=£ 



34567 



:t=t 



This specimen is a facsimile of an instrument in the Ambroscr 



CLASS— REED INSTRUMENTS. 99 

Sammlung at Vienna, and which formerly belonged to the band of 
the Emperor Maximilien I. at Inspriick. Plate III., fig. I. 

Lent by the Conservatoire Royal de Musique, Brussels. 

217. 

Sourdine. This instrument resembles the specimen previously 
described in appearance, but is apparently a contra-bass. It is a 
reproduction of an instrument now in the Ambvoser Sammlung at 
Vienna, and which belonged to the band of the Emperor Maximilien I. 
at Inspriick. 

The successive opening of the keys and finger-holes produces the 
following series : — 



:34 =====— === =r=r=l=l 



zt=± 



1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 

The length of the air-column is 74 inches, inclusive of crook and reed. 

The outside length of the instrument itself is 47J inches. Plate III., 

fig. K. 

Lent by the Conservatoire Royal de Musique, Brussels. 

218. 

Cromorne. This instrument is played with a double reed, placed 
within a cap, and hence beyond the control of the player's lips. The 
lower end is turned vertically upwards and the bell is contracted at 
the mouth. There are six open finger-holes, and an additional hole 
for the little finger of the right hand, made double to accommodate 
right or left handed players. The pitch-note of the instrument is 
e' \f ; but as the crook was not in proper order, the compass of the 
instrument could not be correctly ascertained. The bore was rather 
larger than that of the sourdine, and the tone harsher, and somewhat 
resembling that of the Highland pipes. The total length of the bore 
is 2 feet if inches ; including the reed it is 2 feet 53- inches ; and 
including the cap it is 2 feet 7^ inches. The instrument is a facsimile 
of one in the Ambroser Sammlung at Vienna. Plate IV., fig. E. 

Lent by the Conservatoire Royal de Musique, Brussels. 

G 2 



ioo CATALOGUE OF MUSICAL INSTRUMENTS. 

219. 

Racket. This beautiful instrument is constructed in the form of 
an ivory cylinder, and it is played by means of a rather large double 
reed placed within a pirouette. The bore is of extremely small diameter 
and is cylindrical throughout. The instrument, not including the reed 
and crook, measures only 4! inches in length ; with reed and crook, 
nine inches ; and it is two inches in diameter. The bore consists of 
nine channels, parallel to each other, and which communicate so as 
to form a single length of wind-passage. The finger-holes open out 
on to the circumference of the cylinder, and are bored obliquely, as 
in the bassoon. The front of the instrument is shown in Plate IX. 
fig. B. There are three finger-holes for the left hand ; and three, 
with an additional hole for the little finger, for the right hand. 
There are three holes at the back : one for the thumb of the left 
hand, and two for that of the right hand, one being covered by the 
first joint, the other by the ball, of the thumb. The vent, for there 
is no bell, is also at the back. The compass descends to 



Si 



This instrument is an exact reproduction of one in the Ambroser 
Sammlung at Vienna, and which formerly belonged to the private 
band of the Emperor Maximilien I. 

Lent by the Conservatoire Royal de Musique, Brussels. 



( ioi ) 

VI. 

CLASS-REED INSTRUMENTS. 

Family : Single reeds (a) with cylindrical bore. 

INSTRUMENTS sounded by means of a single-beating reed are of 
great antiquity, and though almost unknown among the ancient 
Aryans, were in common use in the early civilization of Egypt ; and 
there have been latterly exhibited before the Musical Association some 
specimens of very ancient Egyptian instruments, recently discovered by 
Mr. Flinders Petrie, and which were thus sounded. The single reed is 
found still in the Arabian and Egyptian Arghoid, and its use among 
the Greeks and Romans was probably borrowed from Egypt. Frag- 
ments of ancient tibia discovered at Pompeii, show the application of 
this species of reed, and that its use was popular appears to be beyond 
doubt. Reed instruments of this kind were, however, in their early 
stages of development, inferior to those of the double reed families ; they 
lacked the delicacy and quality of tone of the latter, and were capable 
of little expression. Their use was, therefore, confined to musicians 
of a lower social status. The single free reed appears to have been 
known from time immemorial in China, where it is found in the 
" Cheng," the prototype of the elaborate reed organ of the present 
day. Instruments of the free reed type are, however, rarely sounded 
except from a reservoir of air, and, therefore, need no more than 
passing notice here. 

The beating reed, applied so commonly to different kinds of tibia 
by the Romans, eventually found its way to Germany ; and instru- 
ments thus sounded were frequently known as Shalmei, or, in France, 
Chalumeaux ; but the word was sometimes applied to double reed 
instruments, and its use, therefore, is liable to lead to confusion. The 
chalumeau of the 13th century was usually a single tube, cylindrical 
in section, pierced with some nine finger-holes, and sounded by means 
of a reed, the tongue of which was placed upon the upper side. The 
tongue of the reed was generally cut from the same wood as the 
instrument, and shaved down to the required thickness. In course of 
time the instrument came to be better constructed, and a key was 



102 CATALOGUE OF MUSICAL INSTRUMENTS. 

added. About the end of the 17th century Johann Christopher Denner, 
of Nuremberg, made some experiments upon the chalumeau of that 
date, and produced the first clarinet. The principle discovered by 
him was that by opening a key placed at the back of the instrument, 
the sounds produced by the successive opening of the finger-holes rose 
a twelfth higher in pitch. The primitive chalumeau, pierced with 
eight holes, gave the following series of fundamental sounds : — 



P 



=t 



oia| 3 4l5l6l7 8 

The sounds marked X were obtained by cross-fingering. A second 
key giving a' was invented by Denner, and when this was employed 
in conjunction with the twelfth key, it gave b'\>. In this state the 
instrument remained for a number of years ; a lower key giving c fl 
and its corresponding twelfth was added at a later date by Denner, 
and was worked by the thumb of the right hand. This key was 
placed upon the bell-joint, which was so arranged that it could be 
turned to either side so as to suit a right or left handed player. 
But still the instrument was frequently made with a double hole, 
near the bell, for this purpose ; and the duplicate hole not used 
was stopped with wax, as in the case of the flute douce of the same 
period. 

The mouthpieces of the earlier clarinets were placed with the reed 
uppermost, and this custom was continued during the 18th century ; 
it is uncertain when, or how, the present downward position of the 
reed came first into use : and many players in Italy and Spain even 
now use the reed uppermost. 

According to Welcker von Gontershausen (Magazin Musicalische 
Tonwerkzeuge, Frankfurt, 1855), two keys which gave 



P 



irt 



were added to the clarinet by Barthold Fritz, a clever instrument 



CLASS— REED INSTRUMENTS. 



103 



maker of Brunswick, about the middle of the last century. Some years 
later a sixth key which produced 



was invented by the clarinet player Lefevre, who was one of the 
professors at the Paris Conservatoire, about 1790. The clarinet with 
five keys was, however, in general use at the beginning of the present 
century. 

About the year 1800 the clarinettist Ivan Midler, who had been 
long studying the defects of the instrument, and the best methods of 
remedying them, succeeded after many experiments in producing a 
clarinet which to a great extent has held its own even to the present 
day. In this new instrument the number of keys was increased to 13, 
which gave the following sounds : — 



P 



% J fr j g 






BEO 



m 



■ &>-: 

3456 



9 10 11 12 13 



The intonation of this clarinet was truer than that of the old five or 
six keyed instruments, and a great number of shakes were made 
possible. The fingering, however, became changed, and owing to the 
antagonism of various makers and professors, the new instrument was 
adopted but slowly. Owing to the imperfection of the old instruments, 
they had been made in various keys, and the employment of alterna- 
tive joints of different pitch (corps de rechange) was general. The use, 
therefore, of so many different instruments was, by the adoption of 
Muller's clarinet, rendered unnecessary. This possibly influenced 
players in rejecting the new invention, for they feared that they would 
lose in quality of tone what they gained by purity of intonation. To 
render the fingering more easy, rollers were invented in 1S04 by 
Jansen, a clarinet player at the Opera in Paris, and were applied to 
the keys worked by the little finger of the left hand. The use of 
rollers was afterwards applied to both the flute and the bassoon. 



104 CATALOGUE OF MUSICAL INSTRUMENTS. 

The clarinet has during the present century undergone various 
improvements, and has received many additional keys, by which the 
intonation of several notes has been rendered more true. How Simiot, 
of Lyons, increased the number of keys to 19 is well known, and 
needs no more than passing mention here. It is due to Adolphe Sax, 
the well-known maker of Paris, that the principal alterations in the 
instrument were made. Seeking for a more regular way of placing the 
holes, and making a greater use of key-work, he managed to construct 
a clarinet almost perfect in intonation, and of which the mechanism 
left little to be desired. Somewhat later, an endeavour was made by 
the clarinet player Klose to adapt a system to the instruments some- 
what like that of Boehm for the flute. And about 1844 the maker 
Buffet, of Paris, following Klose's design, produced the instrument now 
so generally, but wrongly, called the Boehm clarinet, and which is 
generally adopted in French orchestras. Of the relative merits of the 
Boehm system it is not intended to speak, suffice it to say that with 
instruments of this construction much can be done that is impossible 
with the 13-keyed clarinet ; but whether this is not accomplished 
somewhat at the expense of intonation is a matter of opinion upon 
which authorities differ. The 13-keyed instrument underwent con- 
siderable improvement at the hands of MM. Buffet-Crampon, of Paris, 
about 1843, and the first adoption of rings is due to them. In 
England the clarinet has been considerably improved, first by Cornelius 
Ward, and afterwards by Mr. Richard Carte. The speaker key, which 
had invariably been placed at the back of the instrument, was carried 
round to the front about 1845 by a German called Wehl ; and this 
practice has since been followed generally. Upon the Boehm system 
instruments the speaker key is almost invariably at the back ; and, 
strange to say, Mr. George Clinton, the well known player, is again 
reverting to this position of the key. 

In 1858 Mr. Richard Carte took a patent for an improved clarinet 
which really carried out Boehm's principle of placing the holes at 
regular intervals and venting the notes by open holes below, principles 
which the so-called " Boehm clarinet " carried out only partially. In 
this instrument the inventor attacked the great difficulties in the 
clarinet, i.e. the necessity of closing a hole and working a key with 
the thumb of the left hand ; and the management of the a' key by 




CO 
CD u-> 

ID CO 



» o 



io6 CATALOGUE OF MUSICAL INSTRUMENTS. 



the first finger. The instrument was made at first with an open 
instead of a closed speaker key. Mr. Carte made several modifica- 
tions of this clarinet, the principal one being that known as the 
" Second Modification " (page 105), on which the a' is made by putting 
down the third finger of the left hand, a lever holding down the a'\> 
and a' cups being raised by a ring action. The a' \> is made by the 
first finger of the right hand, together with the third finger of the 
left; a double-action g"§ key being employed. 

On one of the modifications of Mr. Carte's patent clarinet, the 
g'§ and a' holes instead of being open and shut keys, as just described, 
were ordinary open keys. The a' hole was closed by the first finger 
of the right hand, and the a' and a' \> by the third finger of the left. 

Mr. Carte also designed a clarinet with ordinary fingering, a thumb- 
plate taking the place of the thumb-hole ; but though the instrument 
can be played with the old fingering, a ring action for the first and 
second fingers of the left hand closes the g' hole, and the player is 
therefore enabled, if he wishes, to dispense with the use of the thumb 
except for opening the speaker key. This instrument (page 105) has 
been rather extensively used, and will be found described elsewhere ; 
as will also an instrument designed by Mr. Spencer, that has met 
with approval. Recent improvements in France have been made by 
Messrs. Evette and Schseffer, and by M. Paradis, a clarinet player in 
the band of the Garde Republicaine. 

About 1853 a Spaniard, named Antonio Romero y Andria, invented 
an elaborate instrument pierced with 28 holes, and which was pro- 
duced about 1862 by the maker Bi£, of Paris. The mechanism was 
based upon that of Buffet and Klose, and was extremely complicated. 
The invention simplified the fingering of certain passages, and removed 
certain difficulties of execution, but unfortunately caused a radical 
change in the fingering. So that, although adopted by the Con- 
servatoire of Madrid, the invention of Romero never entered into 
general use. A mechanism somewhat similar to that of Romero 
was patented in Paris by M. Andre Thibouville in 1886. The 
very great improvements, both in the method of boring and the 
application of the mechanism, that have been brought out by 
M. Albert, of Brussels, are so well known that they need only passing 
allusion here. 



CLASS— REED INSTRUMENTS. 107 

The clarinet, although invented in 1700, appears to have made but 
slow progress in England, and Grassineau's Musical Dictionary (1740) 
makes no mention of it, although describing particularly other wind 
instruments then in use. The chalumeau appears in the scores of 
Gluck, and this name possibly applied to the earlier forms of clarinet. 
The first composer who seems to have made much use of the clarinet 
is Mozart, although Haydn had used it sparingly before. 

The desire which prevailed during the 16th and 17th centuries 
to arrange music for complete families of instruments, led to the 
construction of deeper toned clarinets, but it was not until about 
1777 that any of these experiments met with success. According to 
M. Lavoix (Histoire de V Instrumentation), a maker named Horn invented 
at Passau an instrument which became to the clarinet what the 
cor anglais or " taille " was to the oboe. This instrument took the 
name of its inventor, and was known as the Basset Horn. By a 
singular misnomer it became known in France as the cor de basset, 
and in Italy the corno di bassetto. The instrument after undergoing 
some modifications at the hands of Lotz, of Presbourg, in 1782, was 
employed by Mozart in " Die Zauberflote," and other operas. Its 
adoption in England and in France was not general until some fifty 
or sixty years ago, when it became known as the alto clarinet. The 
difference, however, between the alto clarinet and basset horn of 
the present day, consists in the extension of the scale of the latter 
chromatically from e to c, by means of four keys worked by the 
thumb of the right hand. 

The invention of the bass clarinet followed rapidly upon that of 
the basset horn, and the first instrument of the kind was made by 
Grenser, of Dresden, in 1793 ; and an instrument made by this maker, 
in the shape of a bassoon, probably as an experiment, was to be 
seen in this Exhibition. The difficulty of bringing the finger-holes 
together, so that they could be conveniently covered, was from want 
of properly constructed key-work very great, and numerous endeavours 
were made to overcome it. Sometimes the bore was made in a serpen- 
tine shape, and instruments thus constructed were introduced by the 
Italian maker Piana, of Bologna. About 1807 a jeweller named Dumas 
brought out a bass clarinet with 13 keys, but which met with small 
success. A later attempt was made by Streitwolf, of Gottingen, in 



io8 



CATALOGUE OF MUSICAL INSTRUMENTS. 



1828 ; and his instrument was constructed in the shape of the basset 
horn, and had 17 keys. It sounded an octave below the c' clarinet. 
The maker Halary, of Paris, produced bass clarinets in brass, and this 
metal was for some time employed by Adolphe Sax. Following up the 
attempts of Streitwolf, Buffet succeeded in constructing a fairly reliable 





Contra-bass Clarinet. 

bass clarinet in c, an octave below the ordinary c ' instrument, and 
which was employed by Meyerbeer in " Les Huguenots." This instru- 
ment underwent further improvements at the hands of Sax, and a 
contra-bass upon the same principles was brought out, but with small 
success. The German musician Wieprecht had been working in the 



CLASS— REED INSTRUMENTS. 109 

same direction, and an instrument, designed by him and called the 
Batyphone, was made shortly afterwards by the German maker Skorra. 
Not answering the expectations of the inventor it was afterwards 
discarded. Of late years, acting upon the advice of M. Poncellet, of 
the Brussels Conservatoire, M. Albert, of Brussels, has succeeded in 
constructing a contra-bass clarinet in F, an octave below the alto 
instrument. And last year an instrument of the same nature, but in 
design entirely new, was brought out under the auspices of M. Fontaine 
Besson, of Paris. This last contra-bass clarinet, constructed in B,\>, 
an octave below the ordinary bass clarinet, possesses a chromatic scale 
as follows : — • 

Z3- z^nzEzr 

to 



Zvo. lower. 

The arrangement of the tubing is ingenious, and can be best under- 
stood from the woodcut upon the opposite page. The arrangement 
of the keys is very simple, and the illustration, since it shows them 
all, needs therefore little explanation. The method of boring is 
peculiar, and consists of an ingenious combination of both cylinder 
and cone ; and the tone produced by this novel instrument, resembling 
in quality that of the organ, will be probably found of great service, 
as a reed bass, in the orchestra. 



220. 

Tibia. Greek or Roman, facsimile. Length 1 foot 8f inches without 
reed, with reed 1 foot n inches. This is an exact reproduction of one 
of four instruments of this kind discovered, in 1876, at Pompeii, and 
now preserved in the Museum at Naples. This instrument is made of 
ivory, cased with silver or bronze. It has a cylindrical bore, and is 
pierced with eleven lateral holes. Fitting over the holes are eleven 
sliding sockets or shutters, any one of which can be closed, and 
thereby cut off communication with the air column inside the pipe. 
Small rings are soldered on to these shutters, and served probably to 



no CATALOGUE OF MUSICAL INSTRUMENTS. 

facilitate their use. These shutters were evidently used as a means for 
putting the instrument in the mode desired by the instrumentalist. 

The instrument was probably played by means of a single reed, 
like the Egyptian arghoul. With this kind of reed the following scale 
is produced : — 

fo — t-jg 



^h^^^M^ EfEtj 



Instruments of this kind were frequently played in pairs, and were 
known to the Romans as Tibiae pares. The reeds fitted into a sort of 
stock, which was held to the mouth by means of a strap or bandage, 
called capistrum, and which was tied behind the player's neck. The 
art of music derived from Greece, and practised in the early days 
of the Roman empire, was brought to a high state of perfection, and 
has been fully treated of by various writers in the 17th century, such 
as Meibom and Dr. Wallis. Through their efforts the remaining 
treatises have been collected ; and the learned commentaries of these 
writers are indispensable to all students of ancient music. Plate IV., 
fig. C. 

Lent by the Conservatoire Royal de Musique, Brussels. 



221. 

Chalumeau, in g', French pitch. This instrument consists of a 
tube of cane open at the lower end, the upper being closed by the 
natural joint of the cane. The tube is covered with red leather; and 
the reed consists of a small tongue detached from the cane itself, and 
shaved down to the required thickness. It is worthy of note that in 
this instrument the reed is placed upon the upper side, unlike the 
arrangement in the clarinets of the present day, and, therefore, the 
lips could have exercised but little control over the vibrations of the 
tongue. There are six finger-holes upon the upper side, with a seventh 
or thumb-hole below. The bell note is g'. The tone of the chalumeau is 
not unlike that of its successor the modern clarinet. Length 83- inches, 
diameter "6 inch. Plate IV., fig. A. 16th or 17th century. 

Lent by M. C^sare Snoeck. 



CLASS— REED INSTRUMENTS. in 

222. 

Clarinet, in a, French pitch. Said to be by C. Denner, but 
stamped " Lindner." Of maple or sycamore wood, with three brass 
keys, with square flaps of very early pattern. The low / — c" key is 
made as a thumb key, and placed upon the under side ; hence, it 
does not show in the plate. The 



P 



f 



hole is duplicated, so that it can be used for either a right or left 
handed player. The keys give the following: — 



=3F 



t 

The lowest note is /, and the bore is nearly identical with that at 
present in use. The design of the instrument is beautifully modelled, 
and is a very good example of the careful workmanship of the period. 
Length 2 feet 11J inches. Plate IV., fig. D. Late 17th or early 
18th century. 

Lent by the Conservatoire Royal de Musique, Brussels. 

■ 

223. 

Small Clarinet, in g', French pitch. Stamped "J. B. Willems." 
An instrument of boxwood, with two brass keys on knobs, with square 
flaps, giving . _^ 1 

fen 



P 



It is difficult to assign any date for this instrument, but according 
to the Indicatmr de Bruxelles, 1765, there were resident there at that 
date six instrument makers, viz.: " M. Snoeck, Luthier de la Cour; 
G. A. Rottenburgh, rue de l'Hopital; Willems, pres des Bons Secours ; 
J. H. Rottenburgh, pres de St. Jean; Bouwens, rue de l'Eveche; 
et Boon, au Plattensteen." Length 1 foot 5 inches. iSth century. 

Lent by the Conservatoire Royal de Musique, Brussels. 



ii2 CATALOGUE OF MUSICAL INSTRUMENTS. 

224. 
Small Clarinet, in d', French pitch. Stamped " G. A. Rotten- 
burgh." Of stained wood, with two brass keys of very early pattern 
upon knobs, and giving b'\> and a'. The bell-joint is made sufficiently 
long to include the lowest finger-hole upon the instrument, and this can 
be turned to either side, so as to accommodate a right or left handed 
player. The maker was living at Brussels in 1765, and there are 
many of his instruments in existence. Length 1 foot 9 inches. 
18th century. 

Lent by the Conservatoire Royal de Musique, Brussels. 

225. 

Clarinet d'Amour, in a, French pitch. Stamped " Deginan." 
With four keys, with square flaps on knobs, and horn tips. The four 
keys give 




The mouthpiece is mounted upon a metal crook, and the bell is 
pear-shaped, and contracted at the mouth in order to produce a veiled 
sound. Length 2 feet 2 inches. 18th century. 

Lent by M. Cesare Snoeck. 

226. 

Clarinet, in c', French pitch. Stamped "J. B. Willems." With 
four keys. This instrument is interesting, since it shows the b% key 
for the little finger of the left hand ; so that, henceforth, it became 
impossible to construct clarinets that could be played either right or 
left handed, as was the case with the earlier models. Length 1 foot 
10 inches. Plate IV., fig. G. 18th century. 

Lent by M. Cdsare Snoeck. 

227. 

Clarinet, in c. Of French make. It is of boxwood and tipped 
with black horn ; the mouthpiece is fixed upon a bent crook of brass. 



CLASS— REED INSTRUMENTS. 113 

The bell, resembling that of the clarinet d'amour, is pear-shaped and 
contracted at the mouth. There are five square-flapped keys of brass 
working upon knobs, and giving e, f§, and g§, with their corresponding 
twelfths; also a' and b'\>. Length 1 foot n inches. 18th century. 

Lent by M. C^sare Snoeck. 



228. 

Clarinet, in a. Of boxwood, tipped with ivory, and with five 
silver keys upon knobs, giving e, f§, g§, and their corresponding 
twelfths above; also a' and b'fy. Stamped "A. Bland and Weller, 
No. 23, Oxford Street." Length 27J inches. 18th century. 

Lent by the Rev. F. W. Galpin, M.A., F.L.S. 



229. 

Clarinet, in /'. Of boxwood, with ivory tip upon bell. Five 
brass keys on knobs, producing the same notes as in the instruments 
described above. Stamped " H. Grenser, Dresden." Probably about 
the end of last century. Length, without mouthpiece, 1 foot 4 inches. 

Lent by the Grossherzogliches Museum, Darmstadt. 



230. 

Clarinet, in c'. Stamped " Astor and Co., London." Of box- 
wood, with five keys, and with ivory tips. Length 1 foot n£ inches. 
18th century. 

Lent by Corporal Roberts, 4th Hussars. 

231. 

Clarinet, in b\}. Boxwood, with six flat brass keys on knobs, 
giving e, f |, g jt, and their corresponding twelfths above, and 
a', b' \f ; also a shake upon a'. The bell is in one piece with the 
lowest joint. Stamped " H. C. Tolcke, Bronsvig." Late 18th century. 
Length 26^ inches. 

Lent by the Rev. F. W. Galpin, M.A., F.L.S. 

H 



ii4 CATALOGUE OF MUSICAL INSTRUMENTS. 

232. 

Clarinet, in e'\>. Of stained boxwood, ivory mounted. There 
are six flat brass keys, with square flaps, working upon knobs. The 
keys give the same intervals as those of No. 231 described above. 
It is stamped " Goulding, 45, Pall Mall, London." Length 19} inches. 
Late 18th century. 

Lent by the Rev. F. W. Galpin, M.A., F.L.S. 

233. 

Clarinet,- in c'. Stamped " Pask." Of boxwood, with five brass 

keys on knobs, and with ivory tips. A sixth key on pillars has been 

added, evidently at a later date. Length 1 foot 11 inches. Late 18th 

century. 

Lent by E. Hooker, Esq. 

234. 

Clarinet, in c'. Of boxwood, stained and spotted. It is tipped 
with ivory, and furnished with eight flat circular keys of brass working 
upon knobs. The keys give £, / $, g $, with their corresponding 
twelfths ; also a' and b'\>. Of the other keys, one is intended 
to correct the 6'fl, the other being a shake upon a'. Stamped 
" D'Almaine and Co., late Goulding and D'Almaine, Soho Square, 
London." Length 23 inches. Early 19th century. 

Lent by the Rev. F. W. Galpin, M.A., F.L.S. 

235. 

Clarinet, in b\>. With five brass keys on knobs, and with ivory 
tips. Stamped " Cramer, London." Early 19th century. This instru- 
ment has a socket and mouthpiece, evidently modern. Length 2 feet 
2 inches. 

Lent by Messrs. Rudall, Carte and Co. 



236. 

Clarinet, in c'. Boxwood, with six brass keys, having square 
flaps, mounted upon knobs, and with ivory tips. The keys give the 



CLASS— REED INSTRUMENTS. 115 

same intervals as those of No. 234 described above. Stamped 
" Otten, London." Length 1 foot n£ inches. Early 19th century. 

Lent by Messrs. Boosey and Co. 

237. 

Clarinet in c'. Of boxwood, with ivory tips. There are six brass 
keys, mounted in the usual way upon knobs, giving the same sounds 
as those previously described. Stamped " Astor." Length 1 foot 
7^ inches. 18th century. 

Lent by Messrs. Rudall, Carte and Co. 

238. 

Clarinet, in b\>. Of boxwood, with six square-flapped brass 
keys upon knobs. The instrument is tipped with ivory, and does not 
differ materially from any of the foregoing types. It is stamped 
"J. Astor, London," and measures 2 feet z\ inches in length. 
18th century. 

Lent by Messrs. Rudall, Carte and Co. 

239. 

Clarinet, in b\). Of boxwood, with six brass keys, having square 
flaps, working upon knobs. The instrument is tipped with ivory, and 
is marked with the name " D'Almaine and Co., London." Length 
2 feet 2 inches. Early 19th century. 

Lent by E. Hooker, Esq. 

240. 

Clarinet, in b\j. Of boxwood. There are six circular flat brass 
keys upon knobs. The instrument is stamped " Cramer," but was 
probably not of his make. The mouthpiece is fitted over a ring, a 
rather late pattern. It was probably made about 1840, as an instru- 
ment of moderate cost, and without the improvements of the time. 
Length 2 feet. 

Lent by Messrs. Rudall, Carte and Co. 

H 2 



n6 



CATALOGUE OF MUSICAL INSTRUMENTS. 



241. 

Clarinet, in 6 b- With eight circular flat keys on knohs, with 
ivory tips. The mouthpiece has a long pin for tuning in place of 
socket. The eight keys give the same notes as in the instruments 
previously mentioned, with the addition of two for 



IcJ- 



Stamped with the maker's name, " Monzani." Length 2 feet if inches. 
Early igth century. 

Lent by George Butler, Esq. 

242. 

Clarinet, in c'. Boxwood. There are eight brass keys on 
knobs, giving the same notes as before mentioned. The mouthpiece 
is made to fit over the pin in the socket, instead of into it. Stamped 
" Key, London." Length i foot nj inches. Early igth century. 
Lent by Messrs. Rudall, Carte and Co. 

243. 

Soprano Clarinet, in g'. Of brass ; skeleton model, with eleven 
German-silver keys on pillars. Engraved " Wiinnenberg, Coin." Length 
15^ inches. 19th century. 

Lent by Messrs. Boosey and Co. 



244, 

Clarinet, in c'. By Key. Formerly the property of Sir W. 
Sterndale Bennett, and given by him to Mr. George Case. This 
instrument belonged to a clarinet player in the band of the 1st Guards, 
and is believed to have been used during the 1815 campaign. There 
are n brass keys with square flaps, on knobs, giving 



** 



i 



-ts 



!tib 



* 



frtfe: 



#*** 



±\r+ %+**■%* 



¥? 



*£= 



CLASS— REED INSTRUMENTS. 117 

An / key has apparently been planned, but has never been put in. 
The key for g'jt appears for the first time here; it was invented by 
James Wood in the year 1800, and formed the subject of a patent. 
Length 1 foot iig inches. 

Lent by G. Case, Esq. 

245. 

Clarinet, in c'. Of boxwood. There are 13 brass keys mounted 
upon knobs ; the keys are all cup-shaped and very carefully made. 
There is a roller upon the c"$ key. The 13 keys give the same notes 
as described under No. 244. There is, however, a duplicate key 
for the b t] and its corresponding twelfth ; also an additional key, giving 



1 




The instrument is stamped " George Wood's Patent." The patent is 
apparently that of James, and not George, Wood, and consists in 
"placing the fingering parts of the long keys b'$ and c"$ in one line, 
and that in a direction parallel to the length of the instrument, so 
that the finger of the performer has only to move slightly forward in 
the direction of the length of the instrument to operate upon the said 
two keys, and thereby the fingering of the said two keys is much 
facilitated." The two keys in question had been rather differently 
placed before this; this arrangement, patented in 1819 by Jas. Wood, 
is practically similar to that now used. Length 1 foot 11 inches. 
Lent by Messrs. Kohler and Son. 

246. 

Clarinet, in b\>. Of boxwood, made by Key in 1825. This 
instrument has now 12 keys, several of them evidently having been 
added at a late date. This clarinet formerly belonged to Mr. John 
Blizzard, then first clarinet player in the band of the 1st Life 
Guards, and afterwards Bandmaster of the Duke of York's School. 
Mr. Blizzard played upon this instrument up till the year 1838, when 
it became the property of its present owner. 

Lent by Henry Lazarus, Esq. 



n8 CATALOGUE OF MUSICAL INSTRUMENTS. 

247. 

Clarinet, in a. By Key, of Charing Cross. This instrument 
is of stained boxwood, and has ten keys working upon knobs ; an 
addition of two rings was made subsequently. This clarinet was 
played upon by Mr. Henry Lazarus, in the orchestras of Her Majesty's 
and Royal Italian Operas, under Sir Michael Costa, from 1843 to 
1855, in which year Mr. Lazarus changed to an instrument of 
another English maker (Fieldhouse). 

Lent by Henry Lazarus, Esq. 

248. 

Clarinet, in a. Made by Fieldhouse. This instrument has an 
improved bore " medium," suggested by Mr. Henry Lazarus as being 
between that of the old English clarinets and that of the more modern 
Belgian instruments. This clarinet was played upon by Mr. Henry 
Lazarus from 1855 to 1865, when he changed to the Belgian instru- 
ment made by M. Albert, of Brussels, and which he still uses. 
Lent by Henry Lazarus, Esq. 

249. 

Clarinet, in b\>. Boxwood. Thirteen silver keys upon pillars, 
and very richly chased, as are also the silver tips with which this 
instrument is mounted. By C. Boose, London. This clarinet was 
exhibited at the 1851 Exhibition, London, and is remarkable, as it is 
the earliest specimen in this collection which has the speaker key 
carried round to the top of the instrument ; in all the preceding 
clarinets it was placed below, which must have affected the tone 
considerably. The /ft key is worked with the third finger of the 
right hand, in lieu of the ring arrangement which is in use at the 
present day. Length 2 feet i£ inches. 

Lent by Messrs. Boosey and Co. 

250. 

Clarinet, in b\f. Boxwood, with 14 brass keys. In reality this 
is a 13-keyed instrument, the 14th key merely being a side b'\> shake. 
The keys are mounted upon knobs, and the thumb rest is cut, as a 



CLASS— REED INSTRUMENTS. 119 

knob, from the same block of wood as the instrument itself. The 
maker's name is not stamped upon this clarinet, but it is known 
to have been made by Eulez, of Frankfurt, probably about 1850. 
Length 2 feet i£ inches. 

Lent by Messrs. Boosey and Co. 

251. 

Clarinet, in b\>. This instrument has the usual 13-keyed fingering, 
but is provided with a key, worked by the fourth finger of the right 
hand, and giving the note e\>. This key was designed by Adolphe 
Sax with the idea of rendering the use of the a clarinet unnecessary, 
the e\f upon the b\> instrument producing the same note in real sounds 
as the e% of the a clarinet. The quality of the note is, however, 
rather different ; and the inventor's idea was never generally adopted. 
This instrument was made by Sax, and gained a prize medal in the 
International Exhibition in 1862. 

Lent by W. Hugh Spottiswoode; Esq. 

252. 

A Set of Four Clarinets, in e'\), c', b\), and a. Modern instru- 
ments, with 13 keys upon pillars. By Rudall, Carte and Co. 

Lent by Messrs. Rudall, Carte and Co. 

253. 

A Set of Four Clarinets, in e', c', b\>, and a, with 14 keys, 
and rings upon the lower joint. By Buffet-Crampon, Paris. Good 
specimens of modern French instruments. 

Lent by W. Hugh Spottiswoode, Esq. 

254. 
A Set of Four Clarinets, in c'\>, c', b\>, and a. By Rudall, 
Carte and Co. Modern instruments of cocus-wood ; all having 15 keys 
of German silver, the double action g"§, and six rollers upon the 
keys, worked by the third and fourth fingers of each hand. 

Lent by Messrs. Rudall, Carte and Co. 



120 CATALOGUE OF MUSICAL INSTRUMENTS. 

255. 

A Set of Four Clarinets, in e'\>, c', b[>, and a. Similar instru- 
ments to the previous set, but made entirely of ebonite. By Rudall, 

Carte and Co. 

Lent by Messrs. Rudall, Carte and Co. 

256. 

Clarinet, in b\>. Of ebonite. By Rudall, Carte and Co. Designed 
by Mr. Richard Carte. Two modifications of this instrument are 
shown. In No. 256 (a) the g' hole is placed towards the front and 
closed by a thumb lever, or with a ring action by the first and 
second fingers of the left hand, thus leaving the thumb free to work 
the speaker key only. In the second modification, No. 256 (b), the 
ordinary keys for a'\> and a', worked by the first and second fingers 
of the left hand, are dispensed with ; the a' is made by the third 
finger of the left hand, and the a' [? by the addition of the first finger 
of the right hand. This arrangement much facilitates the playing of 
passages in which a'\>, a', and b'\> occur, besides rendering the shake 
g'jt, a' satisfactory. The instrument has also the double action g"§ 
key, and is fitted with rollers upon the keys worked by the third and 
fourth fingers of each hand. An engraving of these instruments will 
be found upon page 105. 

Lent by Messrs. Rudall, Carte and Co. 

257. 

Clarinet, in b\>. This instrument was designed by Mr. A. Clinton 
to give equal facility for every scale and shake, and was made by 
Boosey and Co. 

This clarinet has several keys and fingerings in addition to those 
on the Spencer model described (No. 260). There are in all 20 keys 
and five rings, but the details of all the fingerings cannot be clearly 
described without handling the instrument. 

Lent by Messrs. Boosey and Co. 

258. 
Clarinet, in b\>. Ebonite, special model. By Boosey and Co. 
In addition to the usual keys, this instrument has the "Barret" action 



CLASS— REED INSTRUMENTS. 



121 



No. 268. 



13-KEYED Clarinet, 

WITH RINGS ON LOWER JOINT 
(as usually employed). 



No. 260. 

Mr. Spencer's 
Clarinet. 



122 CATALOGUE OF MUSICAL INSTRUMENTS. 

on the upper, and the "extra c"| key" on the lower joint. It has 
also extra touch-pieces to the keys for c'§ and a'\f on the upper joint, 
enabling the player to use these keys either with the right or left 
hand, and a duplicate key for a' fl, taken with the first finger, right 
hand. There are 10 rollers to the keys to facilitate the fingering. 

Lent by Messrs. Boosey and Co. 

259: 

Clarinet, in 6^. Boehm system; By Rudall, Carte and Co. This 
instrument should properly be called the Klose clarinet. It was 
designed by Klose to carry out the principles according to which 
Boehm planned the flute bearing his name, but it only partially 
carries them out. In the middle register it has the /"a and /"tj of 
Boehm, and the b"\) as also made by the first finger of the right 
hand and the first finger and thumb of the left. It has also alter- 
native keys to make c" and b', with the fourth finger of either 
hand. In addition to the ordinary keys for the first finger of the 
right hand there is a key for shaking from b \> to c". See the 
engraving upon page 105. 

Lent by Messrs. Rudall, Carte and Co. 

260. 

Clarinet, in b\>. Spencer's model. By Boosey and Co. This 
instrument is made with the "Barret" action on the upper joint, 
and with the following further additions^ viz. : — 

A duplicate /"t| key on the lower joint to improve the fork /"H, 
making it as full-toned and good a note as that from the cross 
/"B key. The b\>, a twelfth below, is also brought out well by it, 
and this note is not playable on the ordinary 13-keyed clarinet as a 
fork note. 

The c'$ — g"§ key is placed in its proper position; as good and 
full a note is therefore obtained from it as any on the instrument. 
It can be fingered either in the usual way, or with the first finger, 
right hand ; this alternative fingering gives certain advantages in 
extreme keys. 



CLASS— REED INSTRUMENTS. 123 

An extra key on the top joint, giving a perfect &'[>,. and which is 
useful for the shakes, 



P 



tr tr - I tr 



=p=p= 



Lent by Messrs. Boosey and Co. 



261. 



Bass Clarinet, in B\>. Of German make. This instrument is 
of German make, and is in all probability one of the earliest bass 
clarinets in existence. It is made of wood, covered with leather, and 
has a brass crook and bell, which is turned up at an acute angle. 
The wooden body is flat, and about an inch in thickness, the finger- 
holes, which slant upwards through the thickness of the wood, are 
brought near enough for the fingers to cover them. There are three 
brass keys on saddles, producing in actual sounds A \>, G, and the 
low D. Outside length 3 feet 1^- inches. Plate V., fig. A. 

Lent by the Conservatoire Royal de Musique, Brussels. 



262: 

Bass Clarinet, in B\>. Stamped "Nicola Papolini, Inventore." 
This curious instrument is made of pear wood, and is carved out of 
two separate slabs, which are fitted together with wooden pins. There 
are in all 19 finger-holes, numbered in succession upwards from the 
bell. The holes 2, 3, 4, 18, and 19 are covered by keys, which work 
on knobs. The first hole does not appear to have been covered at all 
by either fingers or keys. The keys are all of brass, with square flaps. 
The instrument is made in three joints, and is tipped with horn. 
The socket joint has a curve so as to get increased length of tubing. 
In the middle joint the bore takes a serpentine shape, probably to 
shorten the length of the instrument ; and the bell joint is made of 
wood entirely. Outside length 2 feet 3! inches. See Plate V., fig. B. 

Lent by the Conservatoire Royal de Musique, Brussels. 



124 CATALOGUE OF MUSICAL INSTRUMENTS. 

263. 

Bass Clarinet, in B\>. Stamped "Widerman, a Paris." This 
instrument is doubled at the butt into a semi-circular brass bend, 
at about half its total length. The bore is very large, and measures 
ij inches. There are 20 brass keys on pillars; but as the pads do not 
stop the holes, and the instrument is out of order, it is impossible 
to examine it in detail. Length 27 inches. 

Lent by M. Cesare Snoeck. 

264. 

Batyphone, in E\>. This is a sort of contra-bass clarinet, and 
was one of Wieprecht's endeavours to produce a reed contra-bass. 
It is a fifth below the ordinary bass clarinet, and therefore of the 
same pitch as the E t> tuba of the present day. There are 18 brass 
keys, some of which stand open. The thumb of the left hand 
manipulates the keys 15, 16, and 18 ; the fingers of the same hand 
taking Nos. 9, 10, n, 12, 13, 14, and 17; the thumb of the right 
hand takes the keys 1, 2, and 4 ; the remainder 3, 5, 6, 7, 8, being 
taken by the fingers of the right hand. The first key is of course 
the bell key. The • whole instrument is made of wood, in one piece, 
the bore being doubled near its centre. The crook and bell are of 
metal, the latter being engraved " W. Wieprecht and E. Skorra, 
Patentirte Erfinde." Outside length 3 feet 3^ inches, diameter of bore 
l'33 inches. 

Wieprecht has given the following description of this invention in 
a MS. treatise upon Instrumentation, which is now in the possession 
of Herr Otto Lessmann : — 

" This is an invention of our own in conjunction with Sporra, the Court 
instrument manufacturer of Berlin; it was completed in 1839, and patented 
for ten successive years throughout the Prussian Monarchy. The demand 
for a contra-bass wind instrument bearing technical resemblance to the 
clarionet, flute, oboe, and bassoon, induced us, after many experiments, to 
construct this instrument. We made it to a scale twice the size of that 
of the c' clarionet, the divisions of the chromatic scale being arranged 
according to acoustical principles. Those holes which were too far apart 
to be covered by the fingers, were made accessible by means of so-called 



CLASS— REED INSTRUMENTS. 125 

crank or swivel-keys (similar to those of the keyed contra-bassoon). This 
instrument was made of maple, and had a deep-toned clarionet mouth- 
piece of suitable size. Between the mouthpiece and the instrument there 
was a cylindrical /""\ shaped crook of brass, of proportionate size, as in 
the bassoon. To ensure portability the instrument was constructed of two 
upright cylindrical tubes, and the mouth was provided with a brass bell. 
The quality of its tone was somewhat like that of the lower notes on the 
manual of an organ, pleasant and full, but not sufficiently powerful to take 
the place of the contra-bass in a military band ; and, further, it could be 
played with facility only in its nearly related keys. It sounds two octaves 
lower than the c' clarionet, and possesses the same compass, but was 
played by means of keys. The easiest keys for this instrument were G 
and F major; and the farther one went from these keys, the more difficult 
it became." 

The invention, however, does not seem to have been of much 
practical use, and was abandoned. A somewhat similar attempt to 
produce a contra-bass clarinet was made by Adolphe Sax, of Paris, 
in 1843. Sax made an instrument of brass, with a cylindrical bore, 
somewhat differing in outward appearance from the Batyphone, and 
gave it the name of Saxophone, a word which he afterwards applied 
to a class of instruments totally different. 

Lent by M. Cesare Snoeck. 

265. 

Glicibarifono, in B\>. This instrument is a kind of bass clarinet 
with a vertical bell, and in shape somewhat resembling the bassoon. 
About 1838 the instrument maker, Catterino Cotterini, of Bologna, 
produced instruments of this description. This particular specimen is 
however stamped " P. Maino, Milano," and has 17 brass keys fitted 
on studs, which work in grooves cut in the thickness of the keys. 

Lent by the Conservatoire Royal de Musique, Brussels. 

266. 

Bass Clarinet, in C, made in the form of a bassoon. This 
instrument is made of light wood, and has nine square-flapped brass 
keys working on knobs. The keys give B\>, A, G$, F§, F$', there is 
also a speaker key. There was originally a crook, which had a key 



126 CATALOGUE OF MUSICAL INSTRUMENTS. 

working upon it, but this has since been lost, and the whole, 
instrument is very much out of order. It is stamped with " L," and 
below " A. Grenser, Dresden." So that it is evidently one of the 
earliest instruments of this shape in existence, as this maker was the 
inventor of the bass clarinet. 

Lent by the Grossherzogliches Museum, Darmstadt. 

267. 

Bass Clarinet, in B\>. Of stained boxwood, with four finger- 
holes in front and a thumb-hole behind. There are 20 German- 
silver keys on pillars, which give the a shake, speaker key, a, g§, f 
(in duplicate), e\>, c|, c, B (in duplicate), B\>, A\>, F§, F, E, with 
all of their respective twelfths, and in the lowest register E\>, D, Cfy 
and C. The lower joint is curved back, thereby resembling the 
bassoon ; this admits of the extension of the scale from the E to 
the lowest C below the lines of the bass clef, and giving of course 
the B \> lower in real sounds. Total length, including crook and 
mouthpiece, 42^ inches. 

Lent by the Rev. F. W. Galpin, M.A., F.L.S. 

268. 

Clarinet d' Amour, in g, French pitch. The instrument is made 
of boxwood, and is tipped with bone. The bell is pear-shaped and 
much contracted at the mouth. There are five brass keys on knobs, 
which give , 1 



SB 



The instrument is stamped " P. Piana, a Milano." Total length 
2 feet 9 inches. 

Lent by the Conservatoire Royal de Musique, Brussels. 

269. 

Alto Clarinet, in g. This instrument is made in a curved form, 
much like that of the cor anglais. It is of stained boxwood, and has 



CLASS— REED INSTRUMENTS. 127 

eight brass keys with square flaps on knobs. The tone much resembles 
that of the basset horn, but the bore is very much smaller ; like the 
basset horn, the compass of this instrument extends to the C of its 
scale. There is no maker's name. Total length 2 feet 10^ inches. 

Lent by M. C^sare Snoeck. 

270. 

Tenor Clarinet, in /. This might be called appropriately enough 
a clarinet d'amour, alto, in /, since it has a pear-shaped contracted 
bell. The bore, too, is rather smaller than that of a basset horn, 
though a trifle larger than the ordinary tenor clarinet. The instrument 
only goes down to the e, and not the c, of its scale. There are 
12 brass keys with square flaps on knobs. It is stamped "Cramer & 
Son, London, No. 20, Pall Mall." Length 3 feet 1 inch. 

Lent by Messrs. J. and R. Glen. 

271. 

Basset Horn, in /. Of stained wood, with 13 brass keys on knobs, 
and with ivory tips. Some of the keys are mounted upon saddles, 
and appear to have been subsequent additions. The keys give a com- 
plete chromatic scale. The instrument is stamped " Key, London." 
Length 3 feet. 

Lent by Messrs. Rudall, Carte and Co. 

272. 

Basset Horn, in /. This curious instrument is in shape almost 
unique. It is of boxwood, with ivory mounts and mouthpiece. There 
are 10 keys of plated metal, with square flaps, working upon knobs. 
The bore of the instrument is bent at an angle of about 120 degrees 
near its centre. The bell is globular and very much contracted at the 
mouth, and is turned back towards the player at right-angles to the 
lower joint of the instrument. It is stamped " Strobach, Carlsbad," 
and its total length is 3 feet 7 inches. 

Lent by M. Ce'sare Snoeck, 



128 CATALOGUE OF MUSICAL INSTRUMENTS. 



273. 

Basset Horn, in /. This interesting instrument is made of stained 
boxwood, and is tipped with brass and ivory. It has six finger-holes 
in front, and a thumb-hole at the back. There are 16 flat brass keys 
on saddles, which give the following series : 




The instrument is bent about the middle of the bore at an angle of 
40 degrees. There is a wooden block at the bottom of the lower joint 
just above the bell. Inside this block the bore is reflexed, and then 
curved down again, ending in a bell of brass, and of an oval shape. 
The peculiarity of the basset horn consists in the extension of its 
scale to c, which in real sounds of course gives /. This instrument is 
stamped " H. Grenser, S. Wiesner, Dresden." Length 40^ inches. 

Lent by the Rev. F. W. Galpin, M.A., F.L.S. 



274. 

Basset Horn, in /. Of stained boxwood, with 17 keys and two 
rings, mounted upon pillars. This instrument is tipped with brass, and 
possesses a complete chromatic scale, with the exception of the two 
lowest keys, which give only intervals of a whole tone. It is stamped 
" Heckel, Biebrich." Length 3 feet <\\ inches. 



Lent by H. A. Smith, Esq. 



275. 



Basset Horn, in /, by C. Mahillon, of Brussels. A modern instru- 
ment of beautiful workmanship and tone. The bell is in a straight 
line with the body, and not turned vertically upwards. 

Lent by W. Hugh Spottiswoode, Esq. 




Modern Bass Clarinet. 



130 CATALOGUE OF MUSICAL INSTRUMENTS. 



276. 

Tenor Clarinet, in e\>. Shown as a type of the modern instru- 
ment used in military bands. With 14 German-silver keys. By Rudall, 
Carte and Co. Made entirely of ebonite. 

Lent by Messrs. Rudall, Carte and Co. 



277. 

Bass Clarinet, in B\>. Shown as a type of the modern instru- 
ment used in military bands. Of ebonite. By Rudall, Carte and Co. 
A similar instrument to the tenor clarinet above. 

Lent by Messrs. Rudall, Carte and Co. 



( i3i ) 

VII. 

CLASS-REED INSTRUMENTS. 

Family : Single reeds (lb) with conical bore. 

THE application of the single-beating reed to a conical tube has 
been usually attributed to Adolphe Sax. There is, however, reason 
to believe that experiments in this direction had been made at the 
commencement of the century ; and a curious wooden clarinet, having 
a conical bore, and bearing the name of " Desfontenelles, Lisieux, 
1807," is to be seen in the Museum of the Paris Conservatoire. This 
interesting instrument is all the more remarkable since it has not 
only a conical bore, but also the bell turned vertically upwards, and 
12 keys. The maker was a clockmaker, of Lisieux, and it has been 
urged that he suggested to Ivan Muller many of the improvements, in 
the ordinary clarinet, since attributed to Muller himself. The priority 
of the invention of the saxophone is, then, due to Desfontenelles. 
According to M. Lavoix (Histoire de I' Instrumentation) , it was probably 
in endeavouring to construct a clarinet which should overblow the 
octave, instead of the twelfth, that Sax invented, in 1840, the instru- 
ment to which he gave the name of Saxophone. Whatever may be 
the real origin of this invention, it is, nevertheless, certain that the 
credit of having introduced and perfected the instrument belongs rightly 
to Sax. 

The saxophone consists essentially of a conical brass tube furnished 
with some 20 lateral orifices covered by keys, and with six touch- 
pieces for the first three fingers of each hand. The saxophone, there- 
fore, becomes, as regards brass instruments, what the clarinet is as 
regards wood. 

Comparatively little used in England and Germany, the saxophone, 
introduced first in 1846 into military bands in France, completely 
superseded the clarinet. French makers have, therefore, from time to ' 
time introduced various improvements. The maker Goumas, in 1879, 
adding an additional fingering for b'\>, rendered it possible for certain 
passages, hitherto of difficult execution, to be played with ease. An 
improvement upon this, with further changes, was, some years later, 

1 2 



132 CATALOGUE OF MUSICAL INSTRUMENTS. 

effected by the "Association Generale des Ouvriers," and patented by 
them. In 1887 the instrument was again improved by MM. Evette 
and Schasffer, and by M. Millereau ; the exact nature of the improve- 
ments formed the subject of patents in France, and is of too tech- 
nical a nature to be described at length here. Of late years several 
additional fingerings, and improved mechanism, have been effected by 
M. Fontaine Besson. In Belgium, as in France, the saxophone is in 
common use, and the Belgian makers M. Albert and M. Charles 
Mahillon, of Brussels, keeping pace with recent improvements, produce 
large numbers of these instruments. 

With application of the so-called Boehm system to the clarinet by 
Klose, came the desire to apply a fingering somewhat similar to the 
saxophone ; and the first makers who succeeded in producing instru- 
ments thus constructed were MM. Lecomte. As, however, Boehm's 
invention related principally to the division of the bore, and the 
position and size of the lateral holes, the name " Boehm-saxophone " 
seems hardly correct ; the proportion of the bore and disposition of 
the holes remaining the same, the alterations being only as regards 
mechanism and fingering. The saxophone, though inferior to the 
clarinet both as regards compass, quality of tone, and articulation, is, 
nevertheless, of considerable value in military bands ; and it has 
recently been adopted at the Royal Military School of Music. Up to 
the present time it has not been received as an integral part of any 
military band in England. 

There is a complete family of these instruments formed as follows : 



I. 

Sopranino in /'. 
Soprano in c'. 
Contralto in /. 
Tenor in c. 
Baryton in F. 
Bass in C. 



II. 

Sopranino in e'\>. 
Soprano in b\>. 
Contralto in c\>. 
Tenor in B\). 
Baryton in E\>. 
Bass in B, \>. 



I. are intended for use in the orchestra; II. in military bands. 

In France the use of four or five of the varieties of these instru- 
ments is common. In Belgium those most employed are the contralto, 
tenor, and baryton. 



CLASS— REED INSTRUMENTS. 133 

In the orchestra, for the production of special effects, or for solo 
playing the saxophone is of great value. First introduced in 1844 by 
M. Kastner in " Le dernier Roi de Juda," it was afterwards employed 
by Limnander in the opera of " Barbe Bleue." Meyerbeer, Massenet, 
and Ambroise Thomas have made use of the instrument. And in the 
last named composer's opera of " Hamlet," the value of the contralto 
saxophone, as a solo instrument, accompanied first by strings, and 
afterwards by three trombones and the bass saxophone, is especially 
evident. In the scene on the platform, in the same opera, when the 
spectre appears, the baryton saxophone, in combination with the cor 
anglais, produces an effect as weird as it is novel and appropriate to 
the surrounding scene. 



278. 

Soprano Saxophone, in b\>. By Mahillon and Co. This instru- 
ment is constructed of brass, and is furnished with 20 keys and 
touch-pieces. There are also two octave keys. The compass of the 
instrument is, in real sounds, |j_ 

to fik 



I 



t 



including all the chromatic intervals. 



Lent by Messrs. Mahillon and Co. 



279. 



Contralto Saxophone, in e\>. By Mahillon and Co. Of brass, 
with 20 keys and touch-pieces. There are also two octave keys. 
The compass of the instrument is, in real sounds, 



P 



to 



£ 



with all the chromatic intervals. 

As the contralto saxophone is the instrument in most general 
use, it is thought best to describe it rather than any of the others 



134 



CATALOGUE OF MUSICAL INSTRUMENTS. 



which, in point of construction, do not differ materially. The 

saxophone is written for invariably in the gg clef, whatever may 

be the real sounds produced. The lowest note upon the instrument 
is written b, sounding e\>. By the successive opening of the lateral 
holes the following fundamental sounds (using the notation adopted 
for the instrument) are obtained : 

-*>- - I I I 1 ' 



rj^^i ^^^ - 



W-BW— Mrr*— 



By means of the octave keys the following sounds are obtained : 




-I 1- 



Hence the use of the second harmonics of 
the first three fundamental sounds is rendered 
unnecessary. The compass of the instrument 
is completed by the notes 



i 



j&MM 



W- 



which are produced by four keys conveniently 
placed in the upper part of the instrument ; 
the notes thus produced are the second har- 
monics of the sounds 



bp q » 



SAXorHONE in e\>. 



The instrument is represented in the an- 
nexed woodcut. 

Lent by Messrs. Mahillon and Co. 



CLASS— REED INSTRUMENTS. 135 



280. 

Tenor Saxophone, in B\>. By Mahillon and Co. The compass 
of this instrument is, in real sounds, 



S 



to 



with all the chromatic intervals. It is written for in the gg clef. 

The instrument does not differ in construction from the contralto 
saxophone in e\), already described. 

Lent by Messrs. Mahillon and Co. 

281. 

Baryton Saxophone, in E\>. By Mahillon and Co. The compass 
of this instrument is, in real sounds, 



Uphill 



with all the chromatic intervals. It is written for in the & clef. 

The construction of the instrument resembles that of the contralto 
saxophone, already described. 

Lent by Messrs. Mahillon and Co. 



( ij6 ) 



VIII, 

CLASS-INSTRUMENTS WITH CUP-SHAPED 

MOUTHPIECES. 

Family : Tubes of fixed length. 

THE antiquity of instruments sounded by means of a cup-shaped 
mouthpiece is very great. The lips, pressed against the cup, 
vibrate as a reed ; the pressure upon the cup determines the rapidity 
of the vibrations, and this, in conjunction with the length of the tube, 
determines the pitch of the sounds produced. 

Instruments thus sounded can be traced back to prehistoric times ; 
they were known in the ancient Assyrian civilisation, and figure 
frequently upon various sculptures that remain. The principle was 
also recognised in China ; and the descriptions contained in early 
Sanskrit musical treatises prove the existence in India of such instru- 
ments from periods equally remote. Many of the carvings and frescos 
remaining in India upon ancient temples and caves, such as those at 
Ellora and Ajanta, show the use of horns and trumpets, and in many 
of these the cup-shaped mouthpieces can be distinguished. The 
importance of the trumpet as an emblem of royalty, in connexion 
with religious ceremonies or for military purposes, appears to have 
been early recognised. The voice of the trumpet was heard from 
mount Sinai during the wanderings of the children of Israel, it was 
used by Saul and David, and is frequently mentioned in the Bible. 
Adopted by the Romans, in common with other ancient nations, for 
military purposes, the trumpet retains its place in the armies of most 
countries to this day. 

Instruments of this kind consist of two classes, viz., those, such as 
the horn or trumpet, in which the upper harmonics (from the 3rd or 
4th to the 1 2th or 16th) are mostly employed; and those in which 
the lower harmonics (from the 2nd to the 6th or 8th) are generally 
used, such as the bugle or post horn. 

The trumpet, as we know it now, consists of a cylindrical tube, 
slightly expanding at the bell, and sounded by a mouthpiece, the cup 
of which is almost hemispherical, and the orifice small and angular. 



INSTRUMENTS WITH CUP-SHAPED MOUTHPIECES. 137 

The bore is usually turned once or twice round itself. The bending 
of the tube has frequently been attributed to a Frenchman called 
Maurin, about 1400 ; but this construction was known in the East 
centuries before: that instruments so made were employed in Italy is 
proved from the bas reliefs of Luca della Robbia, which were in- 
tended to ornament the organ chamber in the Cathedral of Florence. 

Three kinds of trumpets are cited by Virdung (Musica getutscht und 
anszgezogen, 1511), and called by him felttrumet, clareta, and thumer horn. 
The engravings given by Virdung are so indistinct that it is difficult 
to understand in what the differences between these instruments con- 
sisted. M. Victor Mahillon, of the Brussels Conservatoire, is, however, of 
opinion that the felttrummet was used for military purposes, and that 
the clareta resembled the clarino, a form of trumpet which will be pre- 
sently described, the thurner horn being used by watchmen and guards. 

Praetorius (Syntagma, 1618) mentions only the trummct and the 
jager trummct. Of these the trummet was in D, and by the aid of a 
crook could be put in C. The jtigcr trummet was a cor de chasse. 
The same writer takes notice of the Alp horn, which he describes as 
the holzem trummet. The D trumpet he tells us had a compass, 
which, by a really good player, could thus be extended upwards : — 



f 



JS-tM-i 



And Bach, in his cantata " Der Himmel lacht," writes the trumpet 
part up to the 20th harmonic ! The trumpet parts at the end of the 
17th and beginning of the 18th centuries were generally divided into 
three, and called by the following : — 

Principal. — Embracing from the 5th to the 10th harmonic 
sounds. 

Clarino I. — Embracing from the 8th harmonic sound upwards 
to the extreme high limit, according to the 
capability of the player. 

Clarino II. — Embracing from the 6th to the 12th harmonic 
sounds. 

To these a fourth part called toccato was sometimes added. 



138 CATALOGUE OF MUSICAL INSTRUMENTS. 

The mouthpieces used for clarino parts were necessarily very small ; 
the intonation, therefore, especially of the lower and middle notes, 
left much to be desired, and the players endeavoured to correct faults 
by means of what is technically termed "pinching." It is probable 
also that trumpets which were intended for clarino parts were of 
a smaller bore ; and such a trumpet is now in the possession of 
Mr. Harper. Parts thus written were found up to the middle of the 
1 8th century, when, as a means of remedying the defective intona- 
tion of certain notes, the use of crooks or tons de rcchangc came 
to be largely employed. Trumpets then came to be used in F 
instead of in D, and with shanks for E, E\>, D, D\>, C, B, B\>, and 
even for A ; and by means of employing several trumpets crooked in 
different keys it was made possible to enrich the harmonies, and to 
make almost every harmonic progression possible, provided of course 
that the band was numerous enough. Here then we see the starting 
point of the so called " brass " band. 

The horn, developed from the jdger trummet mentioned by 
Prsetorius, at first did not differ much in quality of tone from the 
trumpet ; its tubing was differently disposed for the sake of portability, 
and it was played with a shallow mouthpiece somewhat like that of 
the trumpet. Of French or German origin, it superseded the oliphant, 
or ivory hunting horn, which was akin to the modern bugle ; and 
being improved by French makers, and a conical bore substituted for 
the cylindrical, the musical quality of the cor de chasse rapidly be- 
came evident ; and it was introduced into the wind bands of the 
period in combination with trumpets and trombones. The instrument 
was perfected by the maker Raoux, of Paris, and horns of his make 
are greatly prized by players. 

Used principally in the hunting field for signals and calls, of which 
there were a very great number, the use of which is utterly unin- 
telligible to an Englishman, the horn was adopted into the orchestra 
in France by Campra in the opera " Achille et D6idamie " produced 
in 1735. There is reason for believing that the cor de chasse was 
employed previously by Lulli in " La Princesse d'Elide." It had, 
however, been employed in England as early as 1720 by Handel in 
his opera "Radamisto"; and its use in Germany dates from about 
the same period. 



INSTRUMENTS WITH CUP-SHAPED MOUTHPIECES. 139 

The completion of the scale of the horn by means of what are 
termed bouche sounds, produced by the introduction of the hand into 
the bell, is attributed to a player named Hampl, of Dresden, about 
1770. Attempting to produce a softer tone by the introduction of a 
pad or " mute " of cotton wool, he found the pitch became lowered by 
a semitone ; and then, employing his hand, instead of the mute, he 
discovered the method by which intervals between the open notes, 
or natural harmonics, could be, to a great extent, bridged over. 

The same principle was applied to the trumpet in 1780 by Wogel, 
of Rastadt, and his instrument was known in Germany as the invention 
horn. An instrument very similar, and called stopftrompete, was for a 
short time in use, but achieved but small success, the true trumpet 
quality being lost. 



282. 

Ramshorn Trumpet. The Jewish Shofar. Polish. The natural 
horn is partially straightened and flattened by heat, and the small end 
is formed into a mouthpiece. Length of outside curve, 2o|- inches. 
The harmonics available are the 2nd, 3rd, and 4th, sounding — 



P 



The fundamental sound d\> could not be obtained from a tube of this 
length. Indeed, the proper tones of such a tube as the shofar are 
not harmonics in the true sense. It seems more rational to regard 
d'\> as the fundamental, and the a'\> and d"\> as, owing to the irregular 
form of the tube, disturbed harmonics. The subject, however, is of too 
complicated a nature to discuss here. 

In the Bible, keren, shofar, and khatsotsrah are the Hebrew names 
for instruments of the trumpet kind. The keren and shofar are 
sometimes used synonymously. The shofar appears to have been in 
common use as a military instrument, and was used by Saul (1 Sam. 
13. 3) to rouse the people against their enemies. The shofar was also 
used in pageants or processions, and is several times mentioned in 
the Psalms. 



140 



CATALOGUE OF MUSICAL INSTRUMENTS. 



The shofar is of especial interest as being the only Jewish instrument 
whose use for ritual purposes has been retained to the present day. 
When the shofar is blown in the Synagogue, as it is on New Year's 
Day and the Day of Atonement, greater attention is paid to the 
rhythm or tongueing of the notes than to their actual sounds. Hence 
by some players the octave harmonics are blown, by others the fifth 
and octave. 

The following signals are sounded in the Western Synagogue, 
St. Alban's Place, Haymarket : — 




The Roman lituus, which was used by the sacred augurs as well 
as by the cavalry, probably took its shape from the shofar or a similar 
horn. 

Lent by the Rev. F. W. Galpin, M.A., F.L.S. 



283. 

Buccina, in G. This instrument is a facsimile of one found at 
Pompeii, and now preserved in the National Museum at Naples. The 
instrument is curved in a semicircular form, and the bell rests upon 
the shoulder of the player like that of the modern circular valved bass. 
The pitch is G, and the following series of notes can be produced : — 



lEZnfe 



:t= 



=JF±* 



=t 



2 



By reason of the small size of the mouthpiece and the proportions of 
the tube, the fundamental G cannot be produced. In quality the tone 
resembles that of the bugle. The buccina, sometimes called cornu, 
was employed in the Roman armies. In what the distinction between 
the two consisted is not certain ; but it is probable that the cornu 



INSTRUMENTS WITH CUP-SHAPED MOUTHPIECES. 141 

was somewhat smaller. That the cornu and buccina were both 
employed, is proved by Vegecius, who states (III. v.) that calls were 
sounded by the tuba, cornu, and buccina. The historian Pollux 
mentions a curved trumpet {(rd.7ariy%), and M. Gevaert inclines to 
the belief that this referred to the buccina. Each legion of the 
Roman army, Vegecius tells us, had its tubicines, cornicines, and 
buccinatores ; and he describes certain duties peculiar to each. 

Lent by the Conservatoire Royal de Musique, Brussels. 



284. 

Lituus, in g. This instrument is a facsimile of a lituus discovered 
in 1827 at Cervetri, the ancient Caera of the Etruscans, and now 
preserved in the palace of the Vatican at Rome. Trumpets of this 
kind were in use in the Roman cavalry. The Roman lituus, the 
shape of which was probably derived at some remote period from 
the sacrificial ramshorn trumpet, similar to the Jewish shofar, was 
essentially the emblem of the Augurs, and was borne by them as a 
staff. From the sacred lituus, the cavalry trumpet, somewhat similar 
in shape, took its name, and was probably of smaller size and con- 
venient for a mounted trumpeter to sound. The bore of this specimen 
is cylindrical, expanding at the bell end, which is turned vertically 
upwards; the instrument therefore is shaped J. The pitch is g, in 
unison with the g trumpet, which in quality of tone this lituus resembles. 
The lituus was made in different sizes, and many specimens, both small 
and large, have been from time to time discovered. 

Lent by the Conservatoire Royal de Musique, Brussels. 



285. 

Ancient War Trumpet. Of bronze. The shape resembles \_J\ . 
The total length is 56 inches ; inside width across the bell 4 inches ; 
outside diameter of tube at mouth and below mouthpiece £ inch. The 
mouthpiece being fixed upon the tube prevents the inside of the bore 
being measured. There are four metal bosses or bands disposed at 
regular intervals, two of which are mounted with rings. 



142 CATALOGUE OF MUSICAL INSTRUMENTS. 



The following intervals are furnished by this instrument : — 



3^ 



The cup of the mouthpiece is very shallow, and the orifice small 
and angular. With a somewhat larger mouthpiece the fundamental 
sound (A) could probably be produced. 

This instrument formerly belonged to the late Mr. John Davidson, 
F.R.S. 

Lent by T. Davidson, Esq. 



286. 

Ancient Ship's Trumpet. 14th century. Of thin sheet brass, 
with beautifully ornamented and embossed bands of bronze round the 
bell and upper part of the tube. There is also an embossed ferrule 
and boss, of the same metal, at half the length of the trumpet. The 
pitch appears to be a rather flat F. The workmanship was evidently 
executed with great care, the metal joints being beautifully dovetailed 
together the whole length of the tube. Length 5 feet 5 inches. 

A representation of a trumpet, very similar to this, is to be seen 
engraved upon the official seal of the Corporation of the town of 
Hythe, Kent. 

Lent by H. Mackeson, Esq. 



287. 

Oliphant (Ivory). Portuguese, 15th century. This unique and 
beautiful oliphant measures 1 foot iof inches in length, and is of ivory. 
There are three raised bands of ornamental work, and above the upper 
of these there are carved figures of men and crocodiles. From the 
style of the ornamentation this instrument is evidently of the 15th 
century. It is sounded by means of a horn mouthpiece, carved, and 
without doubt of the same date. Plate II., fig. A. 

Lent by G. Donaldson, Esq. 



INSTRUMENTS WITH CUP-SHAPED MOUTHPIECES. 143 

288. 

Oliphant, or Ivory Hunting Horn. Richly carved with repre- 
sentations of scenes in the chase, and the conversion of St. Hubert 
(after Durer). Length (including mouthpiece) 3 feet 5 inches. It is in 
the key of F, giving in real sounds : — 



f 



£ 

It is strengthened by a metal tube internally. German, 17th century. 
Lent by the Rev. F. W. Galpin, M.A., F.L.S. 

289. 

Silvered Horn. This horn is somewhat like a modern hunting 
horn, but is ornamented with embossed designs, and is evidently of 
French manufacture. Probably about the middle of the 17th century. 
Length 1 foot 7 inches. 

Lent by G. Donaldson, Esq. 

290. 

Trumpet, in e'\>. Of brass, with figures of cherubim embossed 
upon the bell. The bosses, or ferrules, on the instrument are beauti- 
fully worked, and are good examples of the work of that day. This 
trumpet has evidently been carefully restored at some later date. 
Engraved " Iohann. Wilhelm. Haas. In Nurnberg." 17th century. 
Length 2 feet 2 inches. Plate X., fig. D. 

Lent by the Conservatoire Royal de Musique, Brussels. 

291. 

Trumpet. With gilt mounts and boss, set with crystals. The bell 
is ornamented with figures of cherubim, and is engraved " Macht. 
Iohann. Wilhelm Haas in Nurnberg. 1694." 

This instrument is bent in places so as to shorten the length. 
There are several ornamental turns disposed at regular intervals, 
and carefully planned for outward appearance. Length 20 inches. 
Plate X., fig. A. 

Lent by the Conservatoire Royal de Musique, Brussels. 



144 CATALOGUE OF MUSICAL INSTRUMENTS. 

292. 

Trumpet, in D. With silver boss and mounts, beautifully worked. 
The bell is ornamented with figures of cherubim, relieved by floriated 
designs, and embossed, " William Bvll, Londini, Fecit." The 
original mouthpiece remains ; it can be detached at pleasure ; the cup 
is very shallow and the orifice angular. Probably late 17th century. 
Length 2 feet 5 inches. Plate X., fig. B. 

Lent by Thomas Harper, Esq. 

293. 

Trumpet, in D\). With one turn, and with a very small bore. 
The boss and bell are beautifully ornamented. Round the bell is 
engraved " Iohn Harris, Londini, Fecit." Length 2 feet 5 inches. 
Early 18th century. 

Lent by Thomas Harper, Esq. 

294. 

Trumpet, in D, with Banner. Made in silver, and with engraved 
boss and beautifully worked rim round the bell. Engraved " Hofmaster, 
London," also with the arms and crest of the Hellier family. Length 
28^- inches. 18th century. 

Lent by Colonel Shaw-Hellier. 

295. 

Pair of Trumpets, in D. Each trumpet has two crooks, for C 
and B\>. With ornamented bosses and rims to bells, both engraved 
" Nicholas Winkings, Maker, London." Length 34 inches. 

This pair of instruments was purchased by Sir Samuel Hellier, of 

the Wodehouse, in 1735, for use in his private band. The original 

mouthpieces have been lost, but the crooks are the original ones, 

made at the time. 

Lent by Colonel Shaw-Hellier. 

296. 
Two Bass Trumpets, in D. These instruments are of similar 
make, and were evidently a pair, and by the same maker. The tubing 



INSTRUMENTS WITH CUP-SHAPED MOUTHPIECES. 145 

is bent round so as to form one long turn the whole length of 
the trumpet, and one short turn of about half the length of the 
instrument. At the further end of the short turn the tuning slide is 
placed, and this is made to slide with one tube exterior and the other 
interior. Length 3 feet 3 inches. 18th century. 

Lent by Her Majesty the Queen. 



297. 

Trumpet. Brass, with two turns, and ornamented mounts and 
bell. Round the bell is engraved "J. Alexander, 101, Leadenhall 
Street, London." Length i6£ inches. 18th or early 19th century. 

Lent by the Director of Artillery. 



298. 

Trumpet, in E\>. Of brass, with stamped ferrules and boss. The 
rim of the bell is engraved " William Shaw, 21, Red Lion Street, 
Holborn, Lond." Length 2 feet 2 inches. Late 18th or early present 
century. 

Lent by the Director of Artillery. 



299. 

Six State Silver Trumpets. These State trumpets are all 
mounted with embossed ferrules and rims to the bells. The earliest, 
which has a hall-mark of 1803, is engraved " Wm. Shaw, 21, Red 
Lion Street, Holborn, London." Two, with hall-marks ten years 
later, appear to have been the property of the 1st Life Guards, being 
engraved " 1st L. G da , H X S," and " 1st L. G d8 , D 4" respectively; 
both bear the maker's name, " Shaw and Son, 21, Red Lion Street, 
Holborn, London." The rims of the bells are evidently stamped 
with identically the same die used for the trumpet made ten years 
before. The other three trumpets are of quite recent date. 

Lent by Her Majesty the Queen. 



146 CATALOGUE OF MUSICAL INSTRUMENTS. 

300. 

Trumpet, with three crooks. By Courtois Freres. This trumpet is 
perfectly straight, and some five feet in length, and it was apparently 
made for effect in some procession or opera. Trumpets of very similar 
shape to this are employed by Verdi in the opera " Aida." 

Lent by the Grossherzogliches Museum, Darmstadt. 

301. 

Trumpet, in E\>. The tubes are brought together so as to be all 

grasped in one hand ; there are bends or loops at the extremities, in 

order to prevent sharp turns in the wind-passage. Trumpets of this 

shape were employed in the Garde Imperiale of the late Emperor 

Napoleon III. 

Lent by Messrs. Besson and Co. 

302. 

Walking-stick Trumpet. Of metal, covered with leather. When 
used as a trumpet, the ferrule at the lower end is unscrewed and a 
mouthpiece inserted ; the handle also is removed, and replaced by a 
metal bell. This musical curiosity was invented by the late Mr. T. 
Harper some forty years ago. 

Lent by Messrs. Kohler and Son. 

303. 

Alp Horn. Made of red willow and bound with white willow. It 
is mounted with horn and curved upwards at the bell end, this shape 
being peculiar to the Bernese Oberland. The present specimen was 
constructed in the woods of Lauterbrunnen by Fritz von Almen, one 
of the few peasant makers still living. It is in B\>. The natural 
harmonics used are 



S^^£^Ef=£^ | 



2 3 4 " 5 6 78 9 10 11 12 13 

sounding a whole tone lower. Length 10 feet. 19th century. 
Lent by the Rev. F. W. Galpin, M.A., F.L.S. 



INSTRUMENTS WITH CUP-SHAPED MOUTHPIECES. 147 

304. 

Alp Horn. Of wood, bound with birch bark. The tube of this 
instrument is bent once round itself, so that in general appearance it 
somewhat resembles the trumpet. This bending of the tube of the 
Alp horn is probably of modern introduction, designed to render the 
instrument less cumbersome. This form of Alp horn is used chiefly 
in the Cantons of Uri, Unter Walden, and Swyz. 

Lent by the Grossherzoglkhes Museum, Darmstadt. 

305. 

Three Bugles. Of paper, plaister of Paris, and gutta percha. 
Made as experiments, and proving that quality of tone is not depen- 
dent upon the material of which an instrument is made, but upon the 
proportions of the air column. 

Lent by Messrs. Besson and Cu. 

306. 

A Collection of Duty Bugles and Trumpets of all Nations ; 
showing different patterns of these instruments employed at various 
times. 

Lent by Messrs. Besson and Co., Potter and Co., Q. Cecconi, 
Mahillon and Co., &c. 

307. 

Cor de Chasse, in E\>. Beautifully made of brass, the rim of 
the bell being stamped with figures of fleur-de-lys. Width across 
coils of tubing to exterior edge of bell 15 inches. No maker's name. 
French. Probably 17th century. 

Lent by the Grossherzoglkhes Museum., Darmstadt. 

308. 

Pair of French Horns. Complete with crooks. This very 
interesting pair of horns were purchased by Sir Samuel Hellier in 
1735, and are preserved in their original wooden cases. The instru- 
ments are, of course, considerably smaller than the horns used in the 
orchestras of the present day. Their greatest width, measured from 

K 2 



148 CATALOGUE OF MUSICAL INSTRUMENTS. 

the outside of the bell across the coils of tubing, is but 20 inches. 
The coils of tubing are covered with a strip of felt, wound round, 
apparently to prevent vibration and to afford an easier grip for the 
hand. The instruments are, as they stand, in D[>, present pitch. 
The first crook is B, the others B\>, A, and G\). These four crooks 
are of the same bore and cylindrical throughout, and a rather large 
mouthpiece is employed with them. There are also two crooks with 
a tapering bore, and used with a smaller mouthpiece. They give B\> 
and G\>. The smaller of these crooks in all its couplings gives A\>, 
G, G\>, E. The larger gives E, E\), D, D\). There are some 
original tuning bits of different sizes. On the bell of each horn is 
stamped, upon the rim, " Iohn Christopher Hofmaster, in Picca- 
dilly, London, 17 ." The two last figures of the date are wanting. 
Both instruments are in exceedingly good condition, and as specimens 
of first-rate horns of the period are probably unique. 

Lent by Colonel Shaw-Hellier. 

309. 

Cor de Chasse, in G. By Carlin, Paris, maker to the King. The 
rim of the bell is ornamented and stamped with figures of fleur-de-lys 
below a crown. Stamped upon the bell is " Fait a Paris, Carlin, 
Ordinaire du Roy." Extreme width 20 inches. 

Carlin was a celebrated trumpet player, and maker of cors de 
chasse, during the reigns of Louis XV. and Louis XVI. His business 
was in the Rue des Petit-Champs, Paris, where he lived till his retire- 
ment, just before his death, which occurred about the year 1780. 

Lent by the Conservatoire Royal de Musique, Brussels. 

310. 

French Horn. Complete with crooks. This interesting instru- 
ment is thus described by Mr. T. S. Mann, the well-known horn 
player, and Professor of the instrument at the Royal Military School 
of Music ; and as his views are of great interest, it is thought better 
to give them in his own words : — 

" I have taken some trouble to find out as near as possible the maker's 
name, and date when made, of the "French" horn exhibited by me, and, 



INSTRUMENTS WITH CUP-SHAPED MOUTHPIECES. 149 



thanks to the kindness of Mr. Goodison, one of the very best English makers 
of brass instruments, have come to the decision that the horn in question is 
decidedly German, and made in Leipsic by Schmidt. No doubt at the time 
it was made (about 60 years ago) it was considered a very fine solo horn. 
It is very complete, having every crook necessary for the different keys, viz., 
B\, alt, A\\, A\,, G, G\>, F, E^, F\,, D, Z)\,, C, B§, B\,, making in all 
thirteen changes. These changes are made, not by means of crooks, but by 
removing the slide and substituting a smaller or larger amount of tubing 
as required for higher or lower keys. It may be interesting to give the 
length of the different crooks from the high B\> alt to the octave B\> bass. 

B\) alt Crook Lengfth about 1 ft. 6 in. 

AH 

A\> 

G 

G\> 

F 

Ft) 

E\> 
D$ 

n\> 
c 

BH 

B\) bass 

thus making the length of the horn, when crooked in B\> bass, about 
18 feet of tubing. The fact of every semitone in the chromatic scale 
being mentioned, and that there is for each a separate crook, gives one 
some idea of how difficult an instrument it must be for an orchestral per- 
former. Continual changes of key occur in most of the music written for 
horns. These changes are necessary to enable the composer to avail him- 
self of the open notes which, on all crooks, are so limited ; namely, taking 
the compass of the horn in every key, two octaves, the open notes within 
the two octaves are limited to twelve, the extreme low and the extreme 
high being uncertain. Since the introduction of valves (about 1825), which 
are now attached to the horn, the notes before made by stopping the bell, 
more or less, can be made equal to the natural notes of the instrument. 
This fact is now fully appreciated by modern composers, who avail themselves 
of it by writing such notes as were on the hand horn not likely to be 
heard, requiring so much stopping. It has been said that the addition of 
valves destroys the tone of the horn. I differ in opinion on this point 
most strongly. So much depends upon how the valves are made, for they 
can be added to the instrument without interfering with the tubing of the 



Length 


about 


I 


ft. 


6 


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it 


2 


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1 






2 
3 


JJ 


8 
4 


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7 


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10 



150 CATALOGUE OF MUSICAL INSTRUMENTS. 

common horn ; then when the valves are not used the instrument remains 
the same. At the present day the use of valves is indispensable, for 
passages are written that it would be absurd to attempt to play upon the 
hand horn. The hand horn is now a thing- of the past; the three-valved 
horn is now in general use throughout Germany, and must become so 
everywhere. It is very difficult to find a player upon the horn without 
valves, in the United Kingdom. It seems absurd to say that Beethoven or 
any composer wrote passages of ha?iJ notes for effect ; when certain notes 
were written, the only way that they could be produced was by closing 
the bell with the hand, therefore nothing else could be done." 

Lent by T. S. Mann, Esq. 

311. 

French Horn. With interior of bell elaborately painted. There 
are no crooks, but with a small modern crook the instrument is 
in B\>. It is stamped on rim of bell "Dubois & Couturier, Lyons." 
Probably made about 1820. Greatest width 21^ inches. The tone of 
this instrument is particularly fine. 

Lent by Messrs. Besson and Co. 



312. 

French Horn. Raoux model, with 10 crooks. By Antoine 
Courtois. Shown as an example of the finest model of French horn 
procurable, being an exact copy of the instrument as perfected by 
Raoux. 

Lent by S. A. Chappell, Esq. 

313. 

Cor Russe. Modern reproduction. A short conical tube, the 
mouthpiece of which is turned almost at right angles to the instru- 
ment. Cors Russes form a special family. There is a distinct 
instrument for each interval of the chromatic scale ; and the " horn 
bands" formed in this manner often embrace as many as a hundred 
performers. Their use is peculiar to certain districts of Russia. 

Lent by Messrs. Besson and Co. 



INSTRUMENTS WITH CUP-SHAPED MOUTHPIECES. 151 

314. 

Invention Horn, in E\>, with D crook. The interior of the bell 
of this instrument is prettily painted. The tubing is wound in an 
ornamental manner, and the crooks fit into the middle of the 
instrument, as in the French horn previously described (No. 310). 
This instrument, however, is in reality a hand trumpet. The idea of 
applying the crooks for changes of key to the middle of the bore, 
instead of, as previously, to the upper end, is attributed to Michael 
Wogel, born at Rastadt in 1748. The name of " Invention horn " 
was given to this instrument in Germany ; and it is interesting as 
showing (excepting the tortil described later, see p. 175) the earliest 
application of the kind suited for crooks of any length. Length 
18 inches. 

Lent by the Conservatoire Royal de Mitsique, Brussels. 

315. 

Cor Omnitonique. This instrument was invented and constructed 
by C. Sax, pere, of Brussels, in 1824. The bell is engraved with the 
royal arms of the Netherlands. In this instrument there is no need 
for the use of crooks. The instrument can be put in any of the keys 
ordinarily used {i.e. B\> (high), A, G, F, E, E\>, D, C, and the 
low B\>), by means of a piston which moves in a graduated tube, 
and which puts the additional lengths of tubing successively into 
communication with the main windway of the instrument. The 
interior of the bell of this instrument is beautifully painted. Its 
greatest width is 23^ inches. 

Lent by the Conservatoire Royal de Musique, Brussels. 



( 152 ) 



IX. 

CLASS-INSTRUMENTS WITH CUP-SHAPED 

MOUTHPIECES. 

Family : Length varied by means of lateral holes. 

INSTRUMENTS sounded by means of cup-shaped mouthpieces, and 
whose length is varied by means of lateral holes, can be traced 
back to a very remote period. The principle involved consists in con- 
necting certain intervals of the harmonic series formed by the open 
tube, chromatically or otherwise, by means of the successive opening 
of a number of lateral holes. Whether instruments thus constructed 
were known to the Romans it is impossible to say, but it appears at 
all events probable. Their invention is decidedly of European origin, 
for no trace of them can be found in countries further East, or in 
India or China. 

About the twelfth century the cometto or Zinck was in use, and 
an instrument, presumably the same, appears in a MS. now in the 
National Library at Madrid {Cantigas de Santa Maria). Some few 
centuries later, when wind bands had assumed a definite design, 
Zinken or cometti became important instruments. Prsetorius {Syntagma, 
1618) mentions that they were, in shape, both straight and curved. 
There were, he tells us, two kinds of straight cornets. The name 
cometto diretto was given to an instrument of which the mouthpiece 
was detachable, and an instrument in which the mouthpiece was 
made in the same block of wood was called cometto micto, by reason 
of its softer tone. This latter was also known in Germany as the 
stille zinck. 

There were also cometti curvi, which differed only in shape from the 
straight cometti. They were usually of a coarser and louder quality of 
tone ; and an instrument of this shape, which was often used by town 
watchmen, received the characteristic name of " Stadtkalb," or "Town 
Calf" ! All these instruments had a compass of 15 notes from a to a", 
and their compass could be extended upwards even to g'", by means of 
cross-fingering. The como, or cometto torto, called also cornoti, formed 



INSTRUMENTS WITH CUP-SHAPED MOUTHPIECES. 153 

the natural bass to this family. The cornon was a fifth in pitch below 
the cornetto ; it was usually shaped like V:, and was considered to 



have a compass of 11 notes only, from d or c to d'. Others, however, 
treated it in the same manner as the ordinary cornetto, and made 
use of cross-fingering. Its tone, Praetorius tells us, was unpleasant 
and harsh, and therefore the use of the trombone became necessary. 

Praetorius mentions the employment of small instruments called cor- 
nettini, standing a fifth higher than the cornetto, and which had the 
same compass and were not unpleasant in tone. Instruments of this 
kind were much admired in former days, and, when well played, are 
capable of much effect. The cornetto is an exceedingly difficult 
instrument, since it leaves so much to the capability of the performer, 
as regards both tone and intonation. How far the cometti were used 
as transposing instruments is rather doubtful ; they were written for 
in various clefs, and were employed by Bach, and later by Gluck ; 
the original scores of " Paride el Elena," " Orpheo," " Alceste," 
" Armida," have parts for them. 

These instruments during the 16th, 17th, and 18th centuries 
underwent little change. They are described at length by Mersenne 
{Harmonie Universelle), who evidently thought highly of them. The 
Venetian writer Artusi in his rare work (Delia Imperfcttioni della 
Modcma Musica, Venetia, 1600) gives a regular method for the cornetto, 
and much valuable advice regarding the embouchure and tongueing of 
the instrument ; the best players he tells us were, in his time, the 
Cavaliere de Cornetto and Girolamo d'Uldine. 

About the end of the 16th century a canon of Auxerre, Edme 
Guillaume by name, experimenting upon the cornon, succeeded in pro- 
ducing the instrument now known as the serpent. The invention of 
Guillaume is described by the Abbe Lebceuf (Memoire Concernant 
VHistoire Ecclesiastique et Civile d' 'Auxerre, Paris, 1743). The serpent is 
not mentioned by Praetorius, but Pere Mersenne describes it in detail, 
ascribing to it a compass of 17 notes from E to g'. The best notes 
of the serpent, he tells us, were from A to g. At first made with six 
finger-holes only, of very small diameter, the intonation naturally left 
much to be desired ; during the last century many improvements were 
made, and the application of keys became general ; it thus became 



154 CATALOGUE OF MUSICAL INSTRUMENTS. 

possible to place the holes at their proper positions, and to make 
them of a diameter suitable to the proportion of the bore. The most 
improved form of the serpent, as made at the commencement of the 
present century by the English maker Key, had 17 keys, and no open 
finger-holes, and will be found described in detail subsequently. 

About 1780, according to Gerber {Lexicon der Tonkiistler, Leipzig, 
1790), a musician named Regibo, of Lille, produced an instrument of 
the serpent type, but gave it the form of a bassoon, thus rendering it 
more portable. A few years later Frichot, a refugee from Paris, 
brought out, in London, an instrument somewhat similar to that of 
Regibo, but made in brass, and called by him the bass horn or basson 
russe. The bass horn was soon introduced into military bands, and 
being carried by the English bands into Belgium in the 1815 cam- 
paign, its use rapidly extended, and shortly afterwards became general 
throughout Europe. 

The gradual disuse of the cornetto, owing to the difficulty of pro- 
curing efficient players, led eventually to the application of keys to 
the trumpet. The idea originated about 1770 with Kcelbel, a horn 
player in the Imperial Guard at St. Petersburg, but it was not 
generally adopted until about 1795, when the instrument maker 
Weidinger, of Vienna, succeeded in producing a trumpet which had 
five keys. The advantages resultant from this construction becoming 
evident, trumpets thus made were eagerly received into the orchestra ; 
and, throughout Italy, were in general use for a number of years. 

In 1810 Joseph Halliday, the bandmaster of the Cavan Militia, 
patented an invention by which he gave the bugle a compass of 
25 tones. This was brought about by the application of five keys, 
thereby binding together by chromatic degrees the second and third 
harmonics (c' to g'). The key bugle, called also Kent bugle or cor a clefs, 
easy to play, and tolerably certain as regards intonation, imparted a 
a new colour to wind bands. Its use soon became general, it was 
received into the orchestra, and was everywhere looked upon with 
favour. A sixth key (open) was shortly afterwards added ; and the 
instrument thus constructed underwent further improvements at the 
hands of different makers. 

The key bugle, when played by an artist, is capable of far more 
than is now generally supposed ; and in agility and rapid articulation 



INSTRUMENTS WITH CUP-SHAPED MOUTHPIECES. 155 

it is still preferable to any piston instrument. Shakes and rapid 
passages, diatonic or chromatic, can be executed upon it with the 
greatest precision and ease. The key bugle therefore became, next to 
the clarinet, the principle solo instrument in military bands from 1820 
until 1835, when it began to be superseded by the cornet a piston. 

The principle of the key bugle was applied to the bass horn by 
Jean Hilaire Aste, an instrument maker of Paris, in 1817. This maker 
is better known as Halary; and according to the Rapport de I'Acadcmie 
Roy ale dcs Beaux Arts de Vlnstitut de France (meeting of July 17, 1817) 
an application for a patent was made for several new instruments of 
Halary's invention. The invention of the ophicleide, or keyed serpent, 
has been generally, but wrongly, attributed to Frichot, but the real 
credit belongs to Halary. The instruments for which application for 
a patent was made were called (1) the clavi-tube; (2) the quinti-tube 
or quinti-clave ; (3) the ophicleide. Of these the clavi-tube was the key 
bugle slightly modified, and the quinti-tube was in reality an alto 
ophicleide. The patent was taken out in Paris in 1822, and from the 
specification it appears that the ophicleide had nine or ten keys, each 
key giving a semitone's difference in pitch. By reason of the length 
and proportions of the tubing the fundamental sounds are employed ; 
the instrument has, therefore, a compass of a little over three octaves 
(38 semitones) from B t or C to c". 

Of accurate intonation, and of a tone-quality entirely its own, 
the ophicleide for a time enjoyed great popularity, and in the hands 
of a good player was deservedly popular. Of late years it has been 
replaced by the tuba and euphonion, and with the death of its only 
remaining player, Mr. Samuel Hughes, the artistic value of the ophi- 
cleide may be said to have ceased. First introduced into the orchestra 
of the opera at Paris in 1817 by Spontini, the importance of the ophi- 
cleide became recognised by subsequent composers, and it was employed 
as a bass to the trombones. Among others, Meyerbeer and Mendels- 
sohn both made use of the instrument, and it was not until about 1848 
that the use of the tuba, the tone of which was found to blend better 
with that of the trombones, came to be generally adopted. 

The alto ophicleide in E\>, a minor third higher in pitch than the 
instrument in C, had for some time been in use in military bands, but 
its employment never entered into the orchestra. This instrument in 



156 CATALOGUE OF MUSICAL INSTRUMENTS. 

its turn was, according to M. Lavoix (Histoire de V Instrumentation), 
replaced, at the suggestion of M. Danays, by the clavicor ; which, 
perhaps less agile, offered fewer difficulties to the performer, and was 
more reliable as regards intonation. 



316. 

Cornettino Recto. This curious old specimen is made from an 
antelope horn, and is straight. It has six finger-holes, rather irre- 
gularly placed, and in front. The mouthpiece is in one piece with 
the instrument. Total length 18 inches. Probably 17th century. 
Plate VI., fig. C. 

This specimen was found in a Norfolk village, where it was known 
as the " Harvest Horn," and had existed for generations. It is pro- 
bably one of the oldest instruments of the kind in existence, and does 
not possess the thumb-hole at the back, as in the later cometti. An 
instrument almost identical, but with the addition of the thumb-hole 
at the back, is in the Museum of the Conservatoire at Paris. It is 
described in M. Chouquet's Catalogue as an Italian Chalumeau, but 
it seems probable that the cap, which holds a double reed, has been 
added at a later period, by mistake. 

The compass of the cornettino is 



j^ to p 



Lent by the Rev. F. W. Galpin, M.A., F.L.S. 

317. 

Cornettino Curvo, in d'. This is of wood, covered with leather 
and stamped with an ornamental pattern. There are six finger-holes 
upon the upper side, with a seventh for the thumb upon the under 
side. This instrument is of the curved form, and has a detachable 
mouthpiece of horn. Its compass is that of the preceding instrument. 
Length 17 inches. Probably 16th century. Plate VI., fig. D. 

Lent by the Conservatoire Royal de Musique, Brussels. 



INSTRUMENTS WITH CUP-SHAPED MOUTHPIECES. 157 

318. 

Cornetto Curvo, in a. This instrument is made of wood, 
covered with stamped leather. There are six finger-holes on one side 
and a thumb-hole upon the other. It possesses also its original 
mouthpiece of horn, which is detachable. The compass is 

-$ — -JH— 

to m= 



l 



with all the chromatic intervals. Total length, including mouth- 
piece, 24 inches. Diameter at bell 1 inch, at small end \ inch. The 
inside diameter of the mouthpiece is j^ inch. 16th or 17th century. 
Plate VI., fig. E. 

Lent by the Rev. F. W. Galpin, M.A., F.L.S. 

319. 

Cornetto Curvo, in a. Of wood, covered with stamped leather. 
There are six finger-holes on one side, with a thumb-hole upon the 
other. There is a detachable mouthpiece of horn. Total length, 
including mouthpiece, 23^ inches. 16th or 17th century. 

Lent by the Conservatoire Royal de Musique, Brussels. 

320. 

Cornetto Curvo, in a. This instrument is of wood, covered 
with leather, and has six finger-holes upon one side and a thumb- 
hole upon the other. The mouthpiece is missing. Total length 
23 inches. 16th or 17th century. 

Lent by Her Majesty the Queen. 

321. 

Cornetto Curvo, in a. Of wood, covered with stamped leather. 
There are six finger-holes on one side and a thumb-hole upon the 
other. The mouthpiece is detachable. Total length 23^ inches. 16th 
or 17th century. 

Lent by the Conservatoire Royal de Musique, Brussels. 



158 CATALOGUE OF MUSICAL INSTRUMENTS. 

322. 

Cornetto Curvo, in a. This beautiful specimen is of ivory, and 
has six finger-holes upon one side, with a thumb-hole on the other. 
The mouthpiece, which was detachable, is missing. Total length 
23 inches. 16th or 17th century. Plate II., fig. G. 

Lent by George Donaldson, Esq. 

323. 

Cornetto Curvo, in a. This instrument is of carved ivory, 
beautifully decorated, and tipped at each end with bands of engraved 
brass. There are six finger-holes on one side and a thumb-hole upon 
the other. The mouthpiece, which was detachable, is now missing. 
Total length 235 inches. 16th or 17th century. 

Lent by the Grosshersogliches Museum, Darmstadt. 

324. 

Cornetto Curvo, in a. This instrument is of wood, stained 
black, and polished. There are six finger-holes upon one side and a 
thumb-hole upon the other. The mouthpiece has been lost. Length 
22 inches. 17th or early 18th century. 

Lent by Mrs. Zoeller. 

325. 

Cornetto Muto (diretto), in g. This instrument is of light 
wood and perfectly straight. There are six finger-holes upon one 
side and a thumb-hole upon the other. The mouthpiece is in one 
piece with the instrument. The compass is 



1 



IS to 




Total length 25J inches. Diameter of bell 1^ inch, at small end \ inch. 
Inside diameter of mouthpiece j 9 ^ inch. 17th century. 

Straight cornets, with the mouthpiece made upon the instrument, 
have a rather softer tone than the other varieties. In Germany they 



INSTRUMENTS WITH CUP-SHAPED MOUTHPIECES. 159 

were called " stille zincken." The name " diretto," or "gerade," was 
more generally applied to an instrument of similar shape, but which 
differed in so far as the mouthpiece was detachable. 

Lent by the Conservatoire Royal de Musique, Brussels. 

326. 

Cornetto Muto, in /. This instrument, like the preceding, is 
of light wood, and perfectly straight. There are six finger-holes upon 
one side, with an additional lower hole, made double to accommodate 
a right or left handed player ; also a thumb-hole at back. The mouth- 
piece is made in one piece with the instrument. The compass is as 
described for the preceding instrument, but descends a note lower. 
This lower note is of course given by the double finger-hole, and, in 
playing, the duplicate hole not required by the performer was stopped 
with wax or similar substance. 17th century. Plate VII., fig. B. 

Lent by the Rev. F. W. Galpin, M.A, F.L.S. 

327. 

Cornetto Torto, or Corno, in c. This is an exact reproduction 
of an ancient instrument now in the museum at Middleburg. It is 
made of wood and covered with stamped leather. There are six 
finger-holes, and a hole for a low note, closed by a brass key, upon 
the upper side, and also a thumb-hole at the back. The mouthpiece 
is of ivory, and is detachable. The instrument is curved to resemble 
r\J> ar >d measures 40 inches in length. -Diameter at bell if inch, at 
small end -^ inch. The inside diameter of the mouthpiece is f inch. 
Plate VII., fig. B. The compass of the cornetto torto is 



^^ to ggr 



Lent by the Conservatoire Royal de Musique, Brussels. 

328. 

Serpent. This instrument is in C, and is made of wood, covered 
with leather. There are six finger-holes, not bushed. The mouth- 
piece is fixed upon a crook of silvered metal, and there is a sliding 



160 CATALOGUE OF MUSICAL INSTRUMENTS. 

ring, with a screw, which regulates the insertion of the crook into the 
instrument. The length across the instrument (not the total length of 
the air column), not including the crook, is 34 inches, and the greatest 
width 16 inches. The diameter at the bell is 3§ inches, and at the 
small end -jy inch. 17th century. 

The serpent stands an octave below the cornetto torto, and 
forms the natural bass to this family. The compass, although it 
depends to a great extent upon the ability of the player, is usually 
considered from 



T^? 



to 



or 



The chromatic intervals were obtained on the serpent without keys 
by half stopping, and not by cross-fingering. 

Lent by the Conservatoire Royal de Musique, Brussels. 

329. 

Serpent. This remarkably fine specimen is of wood, stained black, 
and extremely light to handle. It is mounted with silver, and has six 
finger-holes. The crook is silver-plated, and the original ivory mouth- 
piece is still upon it. Length across the instrument, not including crook, 
33 inches, greatest width 17 inches. Early 18th century. Plate VII., 
fig. A. 

The mouthpiece resembles that of No. 318, but is, of course, larger: 
it is exceedingly thin, while the cup is shallow, and the central 
orifice very small and angular. 

Lent by Colonel Shaw-Hellier. 

330. 

Serpent. Of wood, covered with leather. There are seven finger- 
holes, bushed with ivory; the extra hole, which is at the back, gives 
B fl. There is a brass crook, also the original mouthpiece of ivory. 
Length across the instrument, not including crook, 2g§ inches. 
Greatest width 17^ inches. 18th century. 



INSTRUMENTS WITH CUP-SHAPED MOUTHPIECES. 161 

The earlier serpents were all constructed so that the bell lay in 
the same plane as the bends of the tube. In this instrument the 
bends are brought more closely together, and this was done in all 
subsequent instruments. 

Lent by C. A. Barry, Esq. 



331. 

Serpent. Of wood, and covered with leather. There are six 
finger-holes, bushed with ivory, and three flat brass keys on saddles, 
two of which give B and F§, and are in front; and one giving D§ is 
at the back. The crook is of brass, and the mouthpiece of ivory. 
Greatest length across the instrument, not including crook, 29 inches. 
Greatest width 17 inches. About the middle 18th century. 

Lent by Messrs. G. Potter and Co. 



332. 

Serpent. Of wood, covered with leather. There are six finger- 
holes, bushed with ivory, and three flat brass keys on saddles, two of 
which, giving B and F§, are in front; and one giving D§ is at the 
back. The crook is of brass, and the mouthpiece of ivory. Length 
across the instrument 285- inches. Greatest width 17 inches. Middle 
18th century. 

Lent by D. L. Isaacs, Esq. 



333. 

Serpent. Of wood, covered with leather. There are six finger- 
holes, bushed with ivory, and three flat brass keys on saddles. The 
keys give B, F§, and D§; the B key, as well as the £>$, is placed 
at the back. The crook is of brass, and the mouthpiece of ivory. 
Greatest length across the instrument 20^ inches. Greatest width 
17 inches. 18th century. 

Lent by G. Miller, Esq., L.R.A.M. 

L 



162 CATALOGUE OF MUSICAL INSTRUMENTS. 

334. 

Serpent. Of copper, with six finger-holes, bushed with brass, 
and four flat brass keys on saddles. The keys giving B and .Fit are 
in front; the keys giving D§ and C$ are at the back. This instru- 
ment has apparently been made for a left-handed player. The crook 
is of brass, as is also the mouthpiece. Greatest length across instru- 
ment 27 inches. Greatest width 17 inches. Late 18th century. 

Lent by the Edinburgh University (Chair of Music). 

335. 

Serpent. Of wood, covered with leather. There are six finger- 
holes, bushed with ivory, and four flat brass keys on saddles. The keys 
giving B and F$ are in front; those giving D§ and C$ are at the 
back. The crook is of brass, and the mouthpiece of ivory. The 
bell is turned slightly outwards. Greatest length across instrument 
2gi inches. Greatest width 18 inches. 

The turning of the bell outwards, in order to give greater freedom 
for the emission of sound, is said to have been an improvement made 
at the suggestion of King George III. The serpents made in the 
19th century are made almost always after this model. 

Lent by Rev. F. W. Galpin, M.A., F.L.S. 

336. 

Serpent. Of wood, covered with leather. There are four finger- 
holes, bushed with ivory, and seven flat brass keys on saddles. The 
keys give B, F$, Ft! (open key), F>$, C$!, C $ (open key), and B, 
(open key). This last key is intended to facilitate the production of 
B,^ and B t b in the lowest register. The keys for B, F§, F, and C 
are in front, the remainder at the back. Greatest length across the 
instrument 29 inches. Greatest width 175 inches. The B open key 
at the bottom of the instrument is found also in the ophicleide, and 
is intended to facilitate the production of B and B\>, usually obtained 
by means of the C § and C keys and relaxing the lips. This improve- 
ment, however, does not seem to have been generally adopted. 

Lent by Messrs. R. Ward and Sons. 



INSTRUMENTS WITH CUP-SHAPED MOUTHPIECES. 163 

337. 

Serpent. Of wood, covered with leather. There are four finger- 
holes, bushed with ivory, and seven flat brass keys on saddles ; the 
two lowest work upon wooden bars. The keys give a, B, F§, F 
(open key), D§, C$, and C (open key). The keys for D$ and C$ 
are at the back, the remainder in front; the keys for Cijl and C are 
fitted with rollers. The crook is of brass, and the mouthpiece of 
ivory. Total length across the instrument 29 inches. Greatest width 
18 inches. 

This instrument was formerly used in Melling Church, near Carn- 
forth, Lancashire. 

Lent by the Rev. W. B. Grenside. 



338. 

Serpent. Of wood, covered with leather. There are six finger- 
holes, bushed with ivory, and seven flat brass keys on saddles. The 
keys give a', in the highest register, B, G, F§, E, D§, and C§ in the 
middle and lowest register. The first bend of this serpent is made of 
brass, and is stamped " New Improved, by T. Key, 20, Charing Cross, 
London." All the keys are closed, those for E, D§, and C§ being at 
the back, the remainder are in front. The crook is brass, and the 
mouthpiece of ivory. The greatest length across the instrument is 
30 inches, and the greatest width 18 inches. 

Lent by G. Butler, Esq. 



339. 

Serpent. Of wood, covered with leather. There are no open 
finger-holes, but the holes are closed by 12 flat brass keys on 
saddles, giving the chromatic scale. The crook is brass, and the 
mouthpiece of ivory. The B, G, F, D|, D, C (open), and the B\>, 
G$, and double F§ (closed) keys are in front; the E and C| (closed) 
keys are at the back. Length across the instrument 29 inches. 
Greatest width 17 inches. 

Lent by Messrs. Boosey and Co. 

L 2 



164 CATALOGUE OF MUSICAL INSTRUMENTS. 

340. 

Serpent. Of wood, covered with leather. There are 14 flat brass 
keys on saddles, giving the chromatic scale. The top bend is made 
entirely of brass to ensure strength. Stamped " New Improved, by 
T. Key, 20, Charing Cross, London." 

The keys give the same as described for the preceding instrument, 
with the addition of one for a', and a duplicate key for B\>. The 
total length of the tube of this instrument is 8 feet. This instrument 
shows the highest development at which the serpent arrived. It was 
then gradually superseded by the perfected bass horn or ophicleide, 
which in its turn has given place to the valved brass basses of the 
present day. This instrument was probably made about 1830 ; its 
greatest length across is 2gi inches, and greatest width 175- inches. 
The diameter of the bell is 3f inches, and at the crook end T 9 g inch. 
The inside diameter of the mouthpiece is i\ inches. 

Lent by Messrs. H. Potter and Co. 

341. 

Serpent. Of wood, covered with leather. There are 14 keys, 
giving the chromatic scale, and arranged as in the preceding instrument. 
It is stamped " Key, 20, Charing Cross," and is probably of the same 
date as the serpent mentioned above. Length across the instrument 
29 inches. Greatest width 17 inches. 

Lent by the Rev. F. W. Galpin, M.A., F.L.S. 

342. 

Serpent. Of wood, covered with leather and bound with brass. 
There are no open finger-holes, but, as in the preceding instruments, 
14 brass keys. The upper bend of this serpent is of brass, and by a 
peculiar twist in the crook the instrument is brought more in front of 
the player. This instrument was used in the band of the 46th regiment 
until about 1840, and is in remarkably good playing order. It was 
probably one of the best of its kind ever made. Length across the 
instrument 29^ inches. Greatest width 17 inches. Plate VII., fig. D. 

Lent by W. Bateson, Esq. 



INSTRUMENTS WITH CUP-SHAPED MOUTHPIECES. 165 



343. 

Bass Horn, in C. This very curious looking instrument is made of 
wood, and is stained black and bound with brass. It is made of two 
separate pieces of conical wooden tubing, which fit into a shallow butt- 
joint also of wood. There are six finger-holes, bushed with ivory, and 
three flat brass keys on saddles, giving B, F§, and C§. There is 
a bent crook of brass, and it is played with an ivory mouthpiece. 
The bell is contracted, and resembles that of the cor anglais, but on 
a much larger scale. The maker's name has been stamped upon the 
brass rim of the bell ; it is now almost illegible, but is apparently 
"F. Pace, M"[aker]. Total length 33^ inches. Diameter at bell 
3! inches, diameter at small end J inch. Inside diameter of mouth- 
piece I inch. The compass is from 



S 



T 



to £5 



\j 



or even /". This instrument dates from the latter end of the 18th 
century, and is evidently one of the earliest efforts to perfect the 
serpent by giving it a fresh shape and more regular bore, thereby 
rendering the scale less capricious. Plate VII., fig. C. 

Lent by Mr. Q. Cecconi. 



344. 

Bass Horn, in C. An instrument of wood, covered with leather 
and painted black. There are six finger-holes and three round brass 
keys, two on saddles and one on pillars. The instrument is con- 
structed, like that previously described, of two tubes fixed in a short 
butt-joint. The conical tubes, however, are in this case bored with 
their axes running parallel, in the same block of wood. The bell is 
of brass, and is fashioned in the form of a serpent's head. The keys 
give Fjjl, E\>, and C$. The instrument is stamped "Tabard, a Lyons," 
and has the same compass as that described previously. 

Lent by the Conservatoire Royal de Musique, Brussels. 



166 CATALOGUE OF MUSICAL INSTRUMENTS. 

345. 
Bass Horn, in C. This instrument is made of brass, and in shape 
resembles No. 343, but has a bell more nearly allied to that of an 
ordinary trumpet. There are six finger-holes, and four flat brass 
keys on saddles. The keys give B, F&, E\>, and Cfl. Stamped, 
" Made by Fredk. Pace, 15, King Street, Westminster, and sold by 
W. Howlett, Norwich." Early this century. Length 335- inches. 

Lent by the Conservatoire Royal de Musique, Brussels. 

346. 

Bass Horn, in C. There are four flat brass keys to this specimen, 
giving the same intonations as described for No. 345. The instru- 
ment is made entirely of brass, and resembles in most respects that 
previously described. Length 30^ inches. 

Lent by Messrs. H. Potter and Co. 

347. 

Ophicleide, in C, or perfected Bass Horn. This instrument is 
very beautifully made, and is of wood. It is exceedingly light to 
handle. The wood is covered with folds of canvas, and, over that, with 
leather. The bell is of copper. There are nine flat brass keys on 
pillars; the lowest key stands open. The crook and mouthpiece have 
unfortunately been lost. The total length of this instrument is 
3g|- inches. The compass is from 



to i 



— ±- 
-4- 

About 1830. 

Lent by C. Brock, Esq. 

348. 

Ophicleide, in C. Of brass, with nine flat brass keys on pillars. 
The lowest key is open. Stamped " Labbaye, Brevete du roi, a Paris." 
Length 41^ inches. 

Lent by the Conservatoire Royal de Musique, Brussels. 



INSTRUMENTS WITH CUP-SHAPED MOUTHPIECES. 167 

349. 

Ophicleide, in C. Of brass, with eleven fiat brass keys on pillars, 
giving the chromatic scale. The lowest key stands open. The two 
additional keys in this instrument give F§ and A (>. 

Lent by Messrs. H. Potter and Co. 

350. 

Ophicleide, in C. This very beautiful instrument is made of 
burnished copper, and has eleven embossed keys of silver, upon pillars, 
also of silver. The bell is fitted with a deep rim of silver beautifully 
worked with repousse designs of musical instruments. The bell is 
engraved " R. J. Ward, 57, St. Thomas Buildings, Liverpool, 1848." 
This ophicleide was evidently made to order, as there is a silver shield, 
with armorial bearings, attached to the bell. The mouthpiece is of 
ivory. Plate VIII. , fig. A. 

The compass and general design of the instrument are very similar 
to that of No. 349. Length 42 inches. 

Lent by Messrs. Ward and Sons. 

351. 

Ophicleide, in C. Of brass, with eleven flat brass keys on pillars. 

Stamped " Higham, Maker, Victoria Bridge, Manchester." Length 

40 inches. 

Lent by Messrs. Besson and Co. 

352. 

Ophicleide, in B,\>. Of brass, with eleven flat brass keys upon 
pillars, the lowest key being open. Stamped " Besson, 7, Rue des 
Couronnes, a Paris." Total length 42^ inches. 

Lent by Messrs. Besson and Co. 

353. 

Keyed Trumpet. This instrument is specially interesting, as it 
shows the earliest application of keys to brass instruments. It is of 
brass, and has five flat brass keys on saddles, which give a complete 



1 68 CATALOGUE OF MUSICAL INSTRUMENTS. 

chromatic scale. The notes which the keys give vary of course with 
the crook or tuning bit employed. The fundamental note 



31 



s= 



is not employed. The lowest note employed is g. When the trumpet 
was crooked in D, which was frequently the case, the keys gave the 
following intervals, and of course their respective harmonics. The 
first key is that nearest the bell of the instrument. 



P 



"4: 
Total length 17 inches 



3W" 

Lent by the Conservatoire Royal de Musique, Brussels. 



354. 

Keyed Trumpet (Bass), in G. This instrument is of brass, and 
has six flat brass keys, on pillars, which complete the chromatic scale. 
There is also a tuning slide. It is stamped " Picolet et Benoit, 
a Lyons," and dates from about 1830. The fundamental is 



a] 



-©- 



ivo. 

but its compass does not extend below the second harmonic. The 
instrument therefore is exactly an octave lower than No. 353. The 
sixth key is required only when the trumpet is crooked in a lower key. 

Lent by Messrs. Besson and Co. 

355. 

Key Bugle, in c'. Halliday's model. This interesting specimen 
is one of the -earliest instruments of the kind made, and bears the mark 
of its inventor. It is of copper, and has six flat brass keys, working 
upon saddles. It is stamped " Royal patent Kent Bugle. Halliday, 
Inventor. Made by P. Turton, 5 Wormwood Gate, Dublin." The 
length of the model is 17 inches. Total length of tubing, including 



INSTRUMENTS WITH CUP-SHAPED MOUTHPIECES. 169 



mouthpiece, 505- inches. Diameter at bell 5! inches ; diameter at 
mouthpiece £ inch. Plate XL, fig. D. 

Joseph Halliday, then bandmaster of the Cavan Militia, patented 
the key bugle in 1810. The patent specification was for a bugle with 
five keys, which gave 25 notes. The sixth key, which he added after- 
wards, and which became the first key, gave b jj. The harmonics which 
are available are .as follows : — The closing of the first key, which in 
its normal position is open, produces 



t 



* 



1 1345678 
The open notes of the instrument are 

b* -4 



i^pm 



%j 



=t 



ps=j= 



1234567 
The opening of the second key gives 



^S 



£: 



23456 
The opening of the third key gives 



t 



=t- 



3^ 



i>345 



The fourth key gives only 



** 



« 



To complete the chromatic scale of the instrument the notes 



are produced by means of the fifth and sixth keys. The numbers 
below the notes, in each case, refer to the harmonic series. The 



170 CATALOGUE OF MUSICAL INSTRUMENTS. 

fundamental sounds, though they could be produced in certain cases, 
are never used, and the harmonics above the sixth are of very 
doubtful intonation. 

Lent by Colonel Shaw-Hellier. 



356. 

Key Bugle, in c', with b\> crook. Of copper, with six flat brass 
keys, on saddles ; the lowest key is open, and the total length of the 
instrument is 17 inches. 

Lent by Messrs. H. Potter and Co. 



357. 

Key Bugle, in c'. Of copper, with six flat brass keys, on saddles. 
There is a brass rim to the bell, engraved " Metzler & Son, London." 
Length 17 inches. 

Lent by the Rev. F. W. Galpin, M.A., F.L.S. 



358. 

Key Bugle, in c'. Of copper, with six flat brass keys, upon small 
saddles ; the lowest key is open. Stamped " Improved and made by 
Charles Pace & Son, 8 John Street, Westminster." 

Lent by Messrs. Boosey and Co. 



359. 

Key Bugle, in c', with b\> crook. Of copper, with brass rim and 
six curved brass keys, on saddles. Stamped " T. Harper's Improved 
Royal Kent Bugle. No. 348. Manufactured solely by Muzio Clementi 
& Co., 26, Cheapside, London." The shape of the keys is rather 
peculiar ; they are bent so as to adapt themselves the better to the 
curved surface of the holes. Length 16^ inches. 

Lent by Messrs. George Potter and Co. 



INSTRUMENTS WITH CUP-SHAPED MOUTHPIECES. 171 

360. 

Key Bugle, in c'. Of copper, with six curved brass keys, and 
patent pads. Stamped " George Smith, Wolverhampton. Fecit." 
Length ib\ inches. 

Lent by Colonel Shaw-Hellier. 

361. 

Key Bugle, in c' , with b\> crook. Of copper, with white metal rim 
to bell, and with six cup-shaped keys of brass, on small saddles. 
Stamped " F. I. van Engelen, a Lierre, Province d'Anvers." Length 
i8i inches. 

Lent by the Conserva/o're Royal de Musique, Brussels. 

362. 

Key Bugle, in c', with b\> crook. Of copper, with a brass rim to 
the bell, and with seven flat brass keys, on saddles. The seventh key 
is made to facilitate the production of 



pH 



Stamped " Royal South Gloucester." Length 19 inches. 

Key Bugle, in c', with b\} crook. Of copper, with brass rim to the 
bell, and in every respect similar to that previously described. 

These two instruments were formerly in the band of the South 
Gloucester Militia. 

Lent by Colonel Hill, C.B. 

363. 

Key Bugle (Alto), in e\}. This instrument, whose place has now 
been taken by the valved tenor saxhorn, is made of copper, and bent in 
a semi-circular form. There are seven flat keys of brass, upon pillars ; 
the lowest key is of course open. The compass of the instrument 
was much the same as that of the b\> keyed bugle. It is stamped 
" Sarthedebat, Strasburg." The instrument is so much damaged that 



172 CATALOGUE OF MUSICAL INSTRUMENTS. 

it was impossible to ascertain its pitch. It was called an " alto " key 
bugle by its owner, but the measurement of the tubing (viz. 44 inches) 
suggests that it was in reality a soprano key bugle in e'\>, instead 
of an alto in c\>. 

Lent by M. C^sare Snoeck. 

364. 

Key Bugle (Soprano), in e'\f. This instrument is made entirely 
of brass, and has seven flat keys upon saddles. There is also an 
ingenious arrangement for lengthening the tuning bit by means of a 
rack and pinion adjustment. Length 14 inches. 

Lent by Messrs. Besson and Co. 

365. 

Key Bugle (Soprano), in c'\>. Of copper, with seven flat keys 
of white metal, upon saddles. It is stamped " Wigglesworth, Maker, 
Otley." Length 14^ inches. 

Lent by Messrs. Ward and Sons. 

366. 

Key Bugle, in c'. Of copper, with seven cup-shaped keys of 
white metal, upon saddles. Stamped " Royal Kent Bugle, Patent." 
The mouthpiece is of ivory. Length 17! inches. 

Lent by the Rev. F. W. Galpin, M.A., F.L.S. 

367. 

Key Bugle, in c', with b\> crook. Of copper, with eight flat brass 
keys, on saddles. The eighth key is worked by the little finger of the 
left hand, and is intended to facilitate the shake upon 



Length 17 inches. 

Lent by Mr. O. Cecconi. 



INSTRUMENTS WITH CUP-SHAPED MOUTHPIECES. 173 

368. 

Key Bugle, in b\>. Of copper, with eight flat brass keys, upon 
saddles. Stamped " Potter, King Street, Westminster, London." 
There is also a silver plate inlaid, bearing this inscription, " Presented 
to the Light Infantry of the Honourable Artillery Company by their 
attached friend, Samuel Barnard, Captn. 1828." Length 17 inches. 

Lent by the Honourable Artillery Company. 

369. 

Key Bugle, in c', with b\) crook. Of copper, with ten flat brass 
keys, fitted with patent pads. The two additional keys found here 
are intended to facilitate the shakes upon 



P 



Stamped " Macfarlane's Improved. Manufactured by J. Kohler, Hen- 
rietta Street, Covent Garden, London." 

The fact of there being three shake keys upon this instrument is 
remarkable ; their employment varies of course with the crook used ; 
for instance, to produce the shake upon d", if the instrument is in c', 
the higher key would be used, while the lower one would produce the 
same shake were the b\> crook in use. This instrument shows the 
highest state of perfection to which the key bugle had been brought 
before it was superseded entirely by the valved cornets-a-piston in 
use at the present day. Length 18 inches. 

Lent by Messrs. Kohler and Son. 



( 174 >. 

X, 

CLASS-INSTRUMENTS WITH CUP-SHAPED 

MOUTHPIECES. 

Family : Length varied by slide. 

INSTRUMENTS of which the length of the air column is varied 
by means of slides are of great antiquity. The principle appears 
to have been known in China at a very remote period. Some writers 
have endeavoured to ascribe the invention to Tyrtaeus in 685 B.C. 
Others have imagined the principle to be of Egyptian origin, and have 
ascribed its introduction to Osiris. That instruments thus constructed 
were known to the Romans is, however, certain, and some specimens 
were discovered at Pompeii in 1738. Neumann, in his Tutor for the 
Trombone, describes the finding of these instruments, and mentions that 
they were made of bronze, but had mouthpieces of gold. The king of 
Naples, he states, gave one of these instruments to King George III. 
This statement was confirmed by the late Mr. William Chappell more 
than fifty years ago ; the whereabouts of the instrument is now un- 
known, but it is hoped that at some future time it may again be 
found, and thus an important point regarding the history of musical 
instruments may be decided. That the Romans made use of instru- 
ments thus constructed would seem clear from a passage in the 
Vulgate, which is there rendered "In tubis ductilibus" (Ps. xcviii. 6); 
"tubas ductiles" are mentioned by various classical writers, and Mersenne 
quotes a passage of Apuleius to the effect that " dextera. extendente vel 
retrahente tuba; canales, musicales soni ab ea. edebantur." 

Instruments of this family are now known by the generic name of 
trombone; in former days they were known as sackbut, or saquebut, a 
word derived from the Spanish sacabuche. There is in an old MS. of 
the 9th century, at Boulogne, a representation of a sackbut, or rather 
the slide of one, for the bell itself is not shown ; as far as can be 
seen the form did not then differ materially from that of the modern 
trombone. The instrument is mentioned by Bonanni (Gabinetto Ar- 
monico) under the name of tromba spezzata. Virdung (Mustca Getutscht, 



INSTRUMENTS WITH CUP-SHAPED MOUTHPIECES. 175 

151 1) calls it busaune, and from this word the modern German 
name of posaune has been derived. In Virdung's work an engraving 
of the instrument is given, which has been reproduced by Luscinius 
(Nachtgall) in his Musurgia, already spoken of in this work. 

The sackbut was for a long time a very popular instrument in 
England, and the best players upon the Continent were often English- 
men. In the private band of Henry VIII. there were, among other 
instrumentalists, ten sackbut players ; and appreciation of the English 
artist is shown by the fact that in 1604 King Charles III., of Lor- 
raine, endeavoured to procure sackbut players from England. Of the 
use of the instrument in Lorraine further account may be found in the 
beautiful work of M. Jacquot (La Musique en Lorraine, Paris, 1886). 

In the time of Preetorius (about 1618) the sackbuts formed a com- 
plete family, which he thus arranges : (1) alt or discant posaun, the 
compass of which was from B to d" ; (2) gemeine rechte posaun, 
having a compass from E to g' ; (3) quart posaun, the compass of 
which was A, to c'; (4) and the octav posaun from E, to a. Prastorius 
mentions that the octav posaun was usually of a larger bore than 
the others, and had a slide double the length of that of the ordinary 
instrument. This system was an improvement designed by one Hans 
Schreiber, the octav posaun usually made being slightly different. 
All the instruments are described at length, and there are drawings 
which show the details fully. The use of crooks was employed when 
Praetorius wrote, and they were termed kriimmbiigle, and placed as 
now, between the instrument itself and the mouthpiece. A form of 
crook called tortil came into use some years later, and is described by 
Mersenne. The tortil was placed in the middle of the instrument, 
between the bell and the slide, and consisted of a coil of tubing 
sufficiently long to lower the pitch of the instrument a fourth, in 
order that it might serve as a bass to concerts of hautboys. And as 
a bass instrument the trombone was generally used, and had sup- 
planted, as early as 1618, the use of the cornetto torto, or bass zinck, 
the intonation of which was faulty, and the tone harsh and strident. 

The theoretical principle upon which the trombone is constructed is 
simple, and consists merely in lengthening the air column sufficiently 
to produce the difference of a semitone in pitch. This result is ob- 
tained by means of the slide, which is made long enough to allow of 



176 



CATALOGUE OF MUSICAL INSTRUMENTS. 



seven different positions (like the shifts employed in the violin). These 
positions, as practically employed, enable, in the case of the B\> 
instrument, the execution of the following series : — 




3rd 



4//1 



stk 



6th 



■jth positions. 



Si 



Jz*. 



m 



^kr- 



*t 



3te 



i 



$ 



M 



** 



31: 



The family of trombones consists in the present day of the alto in 
e\> or /, the tenor in B\>, and the bass in G or F. The F bass 
trombone is in constant use in Germany, but unfortunately is little 
employed in this country. 

The trombone has not altered materially the shape which it had 
in the 16th century. A novel instrument was brought out by the 
French maker Halary, about 1830, with the view of facilitating the exe- 
cution of passages requiring a rapid interchange of positions, and also 
to diminish the length of the slide, which in the larger instruments 
was very great, and caused a considerable amount of manual labour to 
the executant. In Halary's instrument the slide was made double, and 
thereby required to be lengthened only half the distance necessary to 
the ordinary trombone to procure the same result. This application 
of a double slide has been improved upon by various makers, first by 
Sax, then by Gustav Besson and Distin, and lastly by Mr. Goodison. 

The trombone with double slides becomes, however, a different 
instrument, and requires a different method. For although the length 
of the shifts is short, and consequently rapid passages, impossible upon 
the ordinary trombone, can be executed with comparative ease, yet it 
must be remembered that new difficulties are presented, and faults 
of intonation are necessarily increased in proportion. The difficulty of 
keeping the double slide air-tight is very great. 

The application of the slide to the trumpet is believed to have 
been made during the last century. Accurate information upon this 
point cannot be obtained ; the instrument, nevertheless, is mentioned 
by Altenburg (Vcrsuch cincr Anlcitung zur hcrcisch-musikalischcn Trompctcr 



INSTRUMENTS WITH CUP-SHAPED MOUTHPIECES. 177 

und Pauken Kunst, Halle, 1795), and it appears probable that the slide 
principle was adapted from the trombone at a comparatively late 
period, and that the slide trumpet supplanted the Inventions trumpet 
(or hand trumpet) of Michael Wogel, an instrument described upon 
page 151. 

The scale of the modern slide trumpet extends from 



hut: 



to 



but contains several gaps which cannot be filled. The slide is con- 
structed sufficiently long to allow of four positions, and is kept auto- 
matically closed by means of a spring. Within the last year an 
application of the double slide principle has been made to the trumpet 
by Mr. W. Wyatt, who has taken out a patent for his improvement. 
The instrument thus constructed possesses a complete chromatic scale, 
and loses nothing of the quality of the ordinary slide trumpet. The 
remarks already made about the double slide are of course equally 
applicable in this case, for the shifts necessarily being very short 
require great nicety of manipulation on the part of the player. 



370. 

Tenor Slide Trombone. Of brass. The rim of bell is engraved 
with floriated pattern, and there are winged cherub's heads in raised 
work at intervals. Inscribed with maker's name as follows : " Macht. 
Hanns Hainee, in Nurnberg, 1668"; also on rim of bell a cock's 
head flanked with initials H. H., no doubt Hainee's device or trade- 
mark. The stays of both bell and slide are chased and engraved, 
the slide-stays being, by an ingenious arrangement, detachable. This 
instrument is a good example of the pre-eminence of the Nuremburg 
metal art in the Middle Ages. Plate XL, fig. A. 

Lent by the Conserva/oire Royal de Musiqne, Brussels. 

371. 

Tenor Trombone. With bell shaped to resemble a dragon's head. 
Probably made about 1800. The shape of the bell is made in imitation 

M 



178 CATALOGUE OF MUSICAL INSTRUMENTS. 

of the Latin Buccina. The origin of this shape is no doubt Eastern, 

but it in no way improves the quality of tone. There are several 

similar instruments at the present time in H.H. the Khedive's band 

at Cairo. Trombones of this shape have been used at different 

times in both English and French military bands. In France these 

instruments were known as Buccin, a word derived from the Latin 

Buccina. 

Lent by the Edinburgh University (Chair of Music). 

372. 

Tenor Slide Trombone. With bell in shape of a dragon's head. 
About 1800. An instrument very similar to that preceding. 

Lent by the Conservatoire Royal de Masiqne, Brussels. 

373. 

Slide Trumpet. By Garrett, London. With ornamental mounts 
and boss. The slide is held in its normal position by means of a 
watch-spring, placed in a round case. This application of the spring 
is found in all the earlier slide trumpets. In the later models either 
a spiral spring, or a piece of elastic is used for the same purpose. 

Lent by the Conservatoire Royal de Musique, Brussels. 

374. 

Slide Trumpet. Modern Harper's improved. By Kohler. Shown 
as an example of a slide trumpet of the present day. 

Lent by Messrs Kohler and Son. 

375. 

Bass Trombone, in F. By Boosey and Co. It is for this instru- 
ment that all the bass trombone parts in German classical music 
were written. It is called in Germany Quart Bass Posaune, the pitch 
of the instrument (F) being a fourth below the tenor trombone in B\>, 
most usually employed. It is only upon this bass trombone that 
the C t| below the lines of the bass clef can be played, a note which 



INSTRUMENTS WITH CUP-SHAPED MOUTHPIECES. 179 




No. 379. 

Double-Slide Trombone. 




No. 376. 

Tenor Trombone. 



No. 375. 

Bass Trombone (Case's System). 



M Z 



180 CATALOGUE OF MUSICAL INSTRUMENTS. 

appears in the scores of many German composers, who have written 
the trombone parts with special consideration for this instrument. In 
this trombone, which was designed by Mr. Case, the tuning slide is 
placed at the lower end of the main slides, instead of at the bend in 
the bell, as is usual. There is therefore no interference with the 
tapered or conical portion of the instrument, the bad effect of which 
interference is especially noticeable on ordinary trombones when the 
tuning slide is drawn to flatten the pitch. On a trombone constructed 
upon Mr. Case's system the pitch may be lowered from the present 
English pitch to the French Diapason Normal, without detriment to 
intonation and freedom, a great advantage to an orchestral player. 

Lent by George Case, Esq. 

376. 

Slide Trombone (Tenor), in J3jj. By Boosey and Co. In this 
instrument, as should always be the case, the taper of the bell is 
carried right through the tuning slides ; so that although the exterior 
of these slides is cylindrical, the interior is conical, as required to give 
the best results in intonation and freedom. 

Lent by Messrs. Boosey and Co. 



377. 

Trombone Slide. Invented by Mr. George Case, and so con- 
structed that, of the movable tubing, one leg telescopes outside, and 
the other inside, the fixed tubing. Made by Messrs. Boosey and Co. 
This slide is that of a trombone considered as a scientific instrument, 
that is, in the same way that a monochord is used to determine the 
harmonics of a string, so this slide is capable of giving, with of course 
the addition of a bell, a perfect system of tube harmonics. This has 
been effected by constructing the slide on the telescopic principle, with 
the great advantage, that the further the slide is extended, so at the 
same time a corresponding length of wide tubing is added at the end 
nearest to the bell, where it is most necessary. 

Lent by George Case, Esq. 



INSTRUMENTS WITH CUP-SHAPED MOUTHPIECES. 181 

378. 

Contra-Bass Trombone, in B\>. With double slide, giving all the 
notes of the B \> tenor trombone one octave lower, the lowest chromatic 
note being therefore 

and the pedal B\> being 



This particular instrument was made by Boosey and Co. for the 
Inventions and Music Exhibition in 1885, but the model was first 
introduced at the Crystal Palace Brass Band Contest in July 1861. 

Lent by Messrs. Boosey and Co. 

379. 

Three Patent Double-Slide Trombones, in B jj tenor, E\> bass, 
and G bass. By Rudall, Carte and Co. 

The application of the double slide to the trombone, although 
invented by Halary about 1830, and adopted by subsequent makers, 
appears to have fallen into disuse. Whether the principle was pre- 
viously applied to trombones of all sizes, or only to the bass trombone, 
is doubtful. It seems to have been re-invented and patented by 
Mr. Goodison in 1884. 

Lent by Messrs. Rudall, Carte and Co. 



( 18a ) 



XI. 

CLASS-INSTRUMENTS WITH CUP-SHAPED 
MOUTHPIECES. 

Family : Length varied by Valves. 

THE first application of valves, now so generally applied to brass 
instruments, is generally attributed to a horn player named 
Stolzel, a native of Breslau, at the beginning of the present century. 
The real credit, however, of the invention is due to the oboe player 
Bllimel, a Silesian, who, according to M. Kastner {Manuel General de 
Musique Militaire, Paris, 1848), sold the right of his invention to 
Stolzel, who, improving upon it, took out a patent in Germany for 
a horn, with three pistons, and by which he secured the right for a 
period of ten years. And hence Stolzel has frequently been considered 
as the inventor of the valve. Bliimel, nevertheless, in conjunction 
with the instrument makers Griessling and Schott, took out another 
German patent, and produced brass instruments of all kinds with 
valves, but which, owing to their defective intonation, met with little 
success. Stolzel, by adding tuning slides to the additional lengths 
of tubing brought into use by the depression of the valves, greatly 
improved upon Blumel's invention; and the principle, once established, 
was readily taken up by other instrument makers of the time, and at 
their hands underwent various modifications and improvements. 

The valves were at first made of square pieces of solid brass, about 
i inch in thickness, kept in their normal position by means of a 
spring, and having the wind passages bored parallel in the same 
horizontal plane. A trumpet thus constructed is described later in 
the work, and valves of this description were made by the German 
maker Schuster, as early as 1818. As, however, instruments con- 
structed with such contrivances could not be compared with the key 
bugle, either in intonation or agility, Stolzel designed a tubular valve, 
much smaller and lighter, and which for some time held its own. 
These valves were made by the maker Charles Sax, of Brussels, 
and were generally applied to the two-valve cornets then coming 



INSTRUMENTS WITH CUP-SHAPED MOUTHPIECES. 183 

gradually into use. The scale of instruments with two valves had 
necessarily certain gaps, and in order to render it truly chromatic, a 
third valve was added at a subsequent date. The bore of all these 
early valves was exceedingly small, averaging only some '38 inch, 
the bottoms of the pumps being utilised as wind-ways, thus causing 
many abrupt turns in the air column. 

The various endeavours to improve upon these valves led to many 
different contrivances. One of the earliest of these was patented in 
1824 by John Shaw, a farmer, residing at Glossop, Derbyshire, and 
called by him "transverse spring slides." Shaw's slides, or staples, 
were made either ascending or descending, and consisted of U-shaped 
pieces of tubing placed at right angles to the main tube of the 
instrument, and fitted with touch-pieces, by the depression of which 
the moveable tubing became either cut off from (if ascending), or added 
(if descending) to, the main wind-way of the instrument. This system 
of Shaw's was afterwards improved upon by the German maker Schott, 
and for a time was generally used in Germany and Austria ; and, for 
the larger instruments, possessed the advantage of presenting a wind- 
way less constricted and of greater diameter than was possible with 
the Stolzel valves ; and valves of somewhat similar construction, 
though much improved, are still employed for instruments used in 
the Belgian Army. 

Until about 1846 the bottoms of valves were still utilised as wind- 
ways, to the detriment of the tone, and in the early three-valved 
cornets, or cornopaeans, as they were called in England, the air- 
passage entered usually at the side of the first valve, and, passing 
through the pumps, left by the bottom of the third. About this time 
a larger bore came into general use, and has since been adopted 
generally ; and a further improvement was made by which there were 
fewer angles in the wind-ways of the valves, the air-passages being 
built up within the pumps. 

The well-known Belgian instrument maker Adolphe Sax, a son of 
the Charles Sax already mentioned, commencing business on his own 
account in Paris in 1842, applied himself particularly to improvements 
in brass instruments, and produced a valve of somewhat greater 

* The pistons are technically termed pumps. 



184 CATALOGUE OF MUSICAL INSTRUMENTS. 

diameter, in which the passages in each piston were all disposed 
in one horizontal place. These valves, though still of clumsy form, 
presented advantages greatly in excess of any hitherto constructed, and 
were for a time in general use in brass instruments supplied to the 
French army. 

The desire to ensure a wind passage absolutely free from abrupt 
turns, and yet of the same sectional area throughout, led the French 
maker Halary to patent a system of valves consisting of revolving 
plates, instead of pistons. The original idea, however, was due to 
John Shaw, of Glossop, who appears to have been then a brass 
worker, and to have abandoned his former profession of farmer. 
The idea was eventually patented by Shaw in 1835, an d in his instru- 
ment as first made, the air-way passed through a loop of tubing fitted 
upon an I-shaped plate. There were two plates of this shape placed 
face to face, one fixed and one moveable, rotating upon a pivot placed 
in the centre of the I. Upon the moveable piece were two separate 
loops of tubing of different lengths, the windway passing through the 
shorter of the two when the plate was in its 'normal position. By 
slightly rotating the plate, the longer loop of tubing was brought into 
use. For these I-shaped plates, circular discs were shortly afterwards 
substituted, and the principle was applied to instruments of all sizes. 
Two trumpets of this construction, one with the I-shaped plates, and 
one with the circular discs, were in this Exhibition, and were the work 
of John Kohler, of Henrietta Street. The latter instrument is else- 
where described in detail (see No. 405), together with a further 
development of the same principle. These patent lever instruments, as 
they were called, had but a brief existence, although their construction 
offered, in theory, many advantages. At the opening of the Crystal 
Palace, 18 of them were supplied for the band of that institution, 
which then was under the direction of Mr. H. Schallehn, afterwards 
Director of Music at the Royal Military School of Music. The 
difficulty of keeping the plates properly wind-tight was found prac- 
tically insurmountable, and the system was consequently discarded by 
the makers. 

The principal improvements as regards a free air passage through 
the pumps are due to Dr. J. P. Oates, an English doctor of medicine 
and clever acoustician. Some of these improved pistons were exhibited 



INSTRUMENTS WITH CUP-SHAPED MOUTHPIECES. 185 

by Dr. Oates in the 1851 International Exhibition, where they gained 
a prize medal. The improvements consisted, in the words of the 
inventor, chiefly in " equitrilateral valves, in which the apertures 
leading into the windways were placed upon the periphery of the 
piston, at the point of an equilateral triangle drawn upon the 
transverse sectional area of the piston." An improvement upon these 
pistons was made in 1852, and registered, becoming known as the 
"eclipse" piston. It was adopted by M. Antoine Courtois as the 
first piston in his celebrated cornets, the " equitrilateral " (slightly 
altered by placing the main windway too near the centre) being used 
as the second. 

Dr. Oates invented also, about the same time, a piston which 
had four straight windways, and which was afterwards patented by 
Alphonse Sax, in Paris, and can be seen upon some of this maker's 
instruments. It is much to be regretted that none of Dr. Oates' 
inventions were patented by him in his own name ; he appears to 
have disposed of his ideas, and they were produced by various 
instrument makers as their own inventions, and patented as such. 

The rotary valve, or cylinder action, in which the pump is replaced 
by a brass cock, was of German origin, and was probably invented 
about 1820. It is certain that it was in general use some 55 years 
ago, and in Germany and Austria has retained its place to the 
present day. 

The French maker Gustav Besson, in conjunction with Rodel, 
patented, in 1851, a system in which the main windway was carried 
straight through the centre of the valves, and was circular throughout ; 
but the openings in the second valve being of larger section than the 
corresponding wind-way, caused an angularity that was found detri- 
mental to the tone of the instrument. An improvement upon this 
construction, by which a direct wind passage was secured for the 
first and third valves, was effected by the same maker in July 1854, 
and patented in France. These improved pistons were fitted to the 
instrument, No. 404, described in detail elsewhere. 

M. Besson, in 1855, produced a system of valves in which the same 
bore was preserved throughout all the windways, in every possible 
combination of the pistons ; this was a very decided improvement 
upon any system previously constructed, and at the expiration of the 



i86 CATALOGUE OF MUSICAL INSTRUMENTS. 



patent the invention was adopted by instrument makers generally. 
A sectional model of these valves was exhibited in this collection, 
and a further explanation of them will be found upon another page. 

Messrs. Besson found that these valves were better suited to the 
larger instruments, and they still employ them for their euphonions. 
In 1874 they succeeded, by a combination of their 1854 and 1855 
patents, in producing a system of valves by which greater brilliancy 
was assured for instruments such as the cornet, etc., which require a 
brighter and more penetrating quality of tone. A detailed description 
of these valves is unnecessary here, since they are largely employed 
for the best instruments made by this firm. 

The well-known action applied by M. Antoine Courtois to his 
beautiful cornets was, as has been remarked, an ingenious application 
of the invention of Dr. Oates. This action was considerably improved 
by M. Courtois, and was employed by the English maker Mr. Henry 
Distin for some considerable time. To reduce the weight of the 
pump, and thereby ensure a more rapid execution, Mr. Henry Distin 
patented, in 1864, what he called his light valve, in which the pump 
was made in a single tube, the air passages being secured with silver 
solder. A particular arrangement of spring action was also included 
in the patent. These light valves were adopted, at the expiration of 
the patent, by many makers, and are largely used by Messrs. Boosey 
and Co. (who added Mr. Distin's business to their own in 1868) for 
many of their instruments at the present time. 

The use of the valves, as is well known, is to vary the length of 
the wind-column, by adding or cutting off certain lengths of tubing. 
As has been already remarked, in order to allow of a chromatic scale 
throughout the compass of a wind instrument of this class, there must 
be seven different lengths of wind column available, answering to the 
seven positions of the slide trombone. This, in the case of ordinary 
three-valved instruments, is accomplished in the following manner. 
The open tube and the pistons, when employed singly, allow of the 
production of the following harmonic series : — 



P 



±3P 



-©- 

Open 1st 2nd ^rd [or r + 2) 



INSTRUMENTS WITH CUP-SHAPED MOUTHPIECES. 187 

The seven positions are completed by the use of several valves 
together ; these combinations produce — 

2«<^ + ird 1st + 3^ 1st + 2nd + 3rd 

The notes printed in black are not generally used, being either for 
acoustical reasons wanting in truth of intonation, or being more con- 
veniently taken by other fingering. Since the union of any two 
pistons does not give the theoretical length of tubing required for the 
true production of these intervals, the performer is obliged to humour 
certain notes ; and this want of truth of intonation is especially 
noticeable in the lower register, in which, as can be seen, certain 
notes cannot be produced by a single valve ; so that, unless the 
player's embouchure is relaxed, these lower notes are invariably too 
sharp. 

To correct this defect, inherent in all three-valved instruments, 
many ingenious contrivances have been made. A rough approximation 
is very generally attempted by making the third valve tubing somewhat 
longer than is required to produce a tone and a half difference in 
pitch. As this valve is seldom used singly, a slight lengthening of its 
tubing is a useful compromise when it is used in conjunction with 
the first or second valves, or with both together. The French 
maker Adolphe Sax, wishing to assimilate the valve trombone to the 
slide instrument, devised, about 1S50, a six-valve system, by which a 
separate valve was employed for each position, and in which no two 
valves could be employed in combination. These valves were made 
ascending, instead of descending, the lowest note upon the instrument 
being that of the open tube. This system, theoretically perfect, was 
for a time in use, and was supported strenuously by Berlioz and other 
distinguished musicians of that day. But, unfortunately, it introduced 
practical difficulties so great that its use was ultimately abandoned. 
The construction of these six-valved instruments is described fully 
upon page 207. Various other devices had been tried by Sax ; 
and an arrangement was introduced in 1S53, by Gustav Besson, by 
which the slide of any piston could be lengthened by means of a 




M. Bf.sson's Registre of 1857. 



M. liiissON's Registre OK 1856. 



INSTRUMENTS WITH CUP-SHAPED MOUTHPIECES. 189 

cylinder, connected with a touch-piece placed at the 
side of the piston itself, and could be employed either 



as a compensator, or to extend the compass of the * 
valve notes. The arrangement, shown in the engraving, 
being found in practice too intricate, was discarded. 

A method of correcting the intonation of the lower register, yet 
preserving the usual three-valve fingering, consists in substituting a 
duplicate set of tubings, of longer length, which are brought into use 
by the depression of a valve or lever. The invention of this arrange- 
ment has been attributed to Courtois, and the device was tried by 
Sax previous to his invention of the six-piston system. It is certain 
that the late M. Gustav Besson patented in 1856 a system having the 
same object. It consisted of a long horizontal valve, called a rcgistre, 
which brought into use at the player's will other tubing, lowering the 
pitch of the instrument a semitone, and substituting at the same time 
a duplicate set of valve tubings of the necessary theoretical length. As 
applied to the ordinary three-piston instruments, the use of the registre 
enabled eight dependent positions to be produced. The following year 
M. Besson patented an improved registre, very similar in outward 
appearance, but which gave eight independent positions. The registre 
itself lowered the pitch two tones. Together with the three pistons 
and the open tube five independent positions were produced ; the 
employment of the registre in conjunction with each of the three 
pistons separately, gave three others. The arrangement of the air 
passages is exceedingly ingenious, and is described at length in the 
French patent specification. The general appearance of the tubing of 
these instruments is shown in the engraving upon the opposite page. 

In 1858 MM. Besson and Giradin designed a compensating system, 
which they patented. It consisted of an addition of two pistons, 
placed below the others ; when these pistons were depressed, the 
slides of the three ordinary valves were automatically lengthened 
proportionately. The mechanism was complicated, and too delicate 
to be of practical use. Accordingly, in the following year, M. Besson 
designed a system by which the same result was differently secured. 
This device he called his transpositeur, and it was equally useful as a 
compensator. A registre, as before, lowered the pitch two tones, and 
in conjunction with three pistons constructed with a duplicate set of 



igo CATALOGUE OF MUSICAL INSTRUMENTS. 

tubings, gave eight dependent positions ; as compared with the patent 
of 1857, the number of openings in the pump were considerably 
reduced, and the disposition of the passages gave greater freedom for 
the air column. An illustration of a euphonion thus constructed 
will be found upon page 209. The transpositeur met with success, and 
was patented in England in 1859. Various infringements were made 
upon the system, and the idea was largely made use of by various 
makers. 

In 1874 M. Leon Cousin patented in France a system somewhat 
similar to the six-piston arrangement of Sax, but in which the sixth 
piston is dispensed with. In M. Cousin's instrument the pistons are 
made descending, and produce the following scale : — 



_icr 



b*=*- -50- -©- b 



£& 



cj- 



-% 



* 



453: 



-o 



fc 



6> 



rfcS 



Open 1st 2nd ^rd qt/i $tk 

The pistons, however, are so constructed that they can be used in 
combination, hence the note c'§, wanting in the above series, is 
produced by the combination of the second and fifth valves, and the 
compass of the instrument can be extended, by using combinations of 
valves, downwards chromatically to c|; there is, of course, no com- 
pensation for valves used in combination. 

Passing by a device, invented about 1874 by M. Thibouville-Lamy, 
of Paris, in which, by means of two keys placed upon the bell, 
the length of the wind column is adjusted to the theoretical length 
required for the production of the harmonic series produced by com- 
binations of valves, we arrive at the first really automatic arrangement 
for ensuring this result. 

This most ingenious device was invented in 1874 by Mr. D. J. 
Blaikley, and perfected and patented by him four years later. It 
consists in a peculiar construction of the valves, by which, when two 
or three pistons are employed in conjunction, the length of the air 
column is adjusted automatically to the exact theoretical length required 
to ensure absolutely correct intonation. 

The improvements, by which this is effected, consist in passing 
the tubing connected with the third valve through the first and second 



INSTRUMENTS WITH CUP-SHAPED MOUTHPIECES. 191 

valves in such a way that, when the third valve is pressed dowri, 
the vibrating column of air passes through passages in the first and 
second valves in addition to the two passages in the third valve, as 
used in the common arrangement ; and for the purpose of bringing 
additional tubing into action in connection with the first and second 
valves, as required for correct intonation, when they are either or 
both used in combination with the third, Mr. Blaikley adds two air 
passages to each of these valves, and in connection with each pair 
of passages a loop, or circuit of tube, of the required length, which 
is added to the effective length of the instrument only when the third 
valve is used in connection with the others. Such additional tubing 
compensates for the lowering of the pitch of the instrument due to 
the pressing down of the third valve. 

By help of the annexed Drawings, this will be more clearly 
understood. Figure 1 is a front elevation of the valves with the 
pistons up ; and Figure 2 is a back elevation, showing all the pistons 
down. The same letters of reference indicate like parts in both 
Figures. The dotted line A, A, Figure. 1, shows the air passage 





Fro. 2. 



Fig. 1. 



through the piston for " open " notes, that is to say, notes produced 
with the pistons up ; the line B B in the same Figure indicates the 
air passage when the third piston only is pressed down. In Figure 2 



192 CATALOGUE OF MUSICAL INSTRUMENTS. 

the line C C represents the air passage when all the pistons are 
pressed down ; D is the additional tubing connected with the first 
piston ; and E the additional tubing connected with the second 
piston. 

The action of the apparatus is as follows : — When either the first 
or second piston only is pressed down, the air passages are of the 
same length as in instruments of ordinary construction, but when 
either or both of those pistons is or are pressed down together with 
the third piston, then the air passage is lengthened by the additional 
length of tubing D or E, or both, thereby lengthening the air passage 
in inverse proportion to the number of vibrations of the required 
notes. 

Since the fingering of the instrument remains unchanged, the value 
of this arrangement cannot be over rated ; and when applied to the 
larger instruments, in which the size and looseness of the embouchure 
enhances the difficulty of correction by means of the lips, its utility is 
especially evident. Euphonions and tubas thus constructed have been 
adopted for some years at the Royal Military School of Music, where 
the value of the system has been proved by the experience derived 
from constant use ; and in orchestral works, the modern employment 
of the low notes of the tuba renders the four-valve compensating 
instruments peculiarly valuable. 

A device somewhat similar to that of Mr. Blaikley was patented in 
France by M. Sudre in 1881. The mechanism employed is, however, 
different, and consists in an arrangement by which the slides of the 
pistons are automatically lengthened. Improving upon this device, 
which was found of too delicate a nature, two supplementary tubes 
were designed of the requisite theoretical length required, when the 
1st and 3rd, or 2nd and 3rd, or all three pistons, were used in com- 
bination ; one or both of these additional tubes being automatically 
brought into connection with the air column thus formed. 

M. Victor Mahillon, of the Brussels Conservatoire, had been for 
some time endeavouring to procure a like result, and in 1886 he 
produced his piston regulateur, by which the air column produced by 
the depression of the first and third, or all three, pistons at the same 
time, was made of the requisite length. The fingering of the instru- 
ment remained unaltered ; but it was necessary to bring the additional 



INSTRUMENTS WITH CUP-SHAPED MOUTHPIECES. 193 



tubing into use by the depression of a supplementary valve. Improv- 
ing upon this, M. Mahillon succeeded in constructing an automatic 
arrangement, of which a diagram (an exact facsimile, reduced in 
scale, from that in the patent specification) is annexed, and which he 
designated his automatic regulating pistons. 




XXX 




In the diagram it will be seen that when the third piston is em- 
ployed alone, or in combination with the second, the air column passes 
through the branch A of the additional tubing attached to the third 
piston, enters the first valve at C, and, passing through the bend D 
into the branch E, rejoins the main tubing F G. The additional 
tube A D E is of the exact theoretical length required to produce a 
lowering in pitch of a tone and a half. Each time, however, that 
the first and third pistons are employed in combination, the air 
column passes through the branch A of the additional tubing, and 
enters the first valve at C, whence it passes into the bend H 
(which is longer than the bend D to a degree necessary to ensure 
the exact theoretical length required, when the two additional loops 
of tubing are employed simultaneously) to E, rejoining the main 
tubing F G. 

An improvement upon the " registre " of Gustav Besson, already 
mentioned, has been patented in the last year by his successors (Patent 
No. 6649, a.d. 1890). In this arrangement the third valve itself acts 
as the registre, and, when used in conjunction with any of the other 
valves, causes the air column to pass into a duplicate set of valve 
tubings of the requisite theoretical length. Hence the combinational 

N 



194 



CATALOGUE OF MUSICAL. INSTRUMENTS. 




valve notes and their harmonics are perfectly true. The registre can 
be also applied as a transposer, when it becomes a fourth valve, and 
is placed horizontally at the side and moved by a lever. The annexed 
woodcut will explain this ; the valve is in its normal position ; the 

dotted lines show the position 
when the lever is depressed ; 
the actuating touch - piece is 
placed upon the reverse side, 
and hence is not visible. The 
exact arrangement of the air 
passages is very ingenious, but 
is of too complicated a nature 
to be described at length here. 
A different compensating ar- 
rangement is found in the cornet 
invented by the well-known artist 
M. Arban, and for some time 
adopted at the Paris Conserva- 
toire. M. Arban's system is described more particularly in a sub- 
sequent page, and therefore needs only passing mention here. 

Another compensating device consists in applying a set of valves 
to the slide trombone or trumpet. The instrument can thus be 
used either as a slide or valve instrument ; in the latter case the slide 
can be employed as a compensator. 

Whilst speaking of valved instruments this article would be incom- 
plete if it failed to mention several applications of a single valve to a 
slide instrument. This single valve has, in the case of the trombone, 
been used variously ; an arrangement by which the air column thus 
brought into use lowered the pitch one fourth, was constructed by 
M. Besson, with the object of lessening the distance required be- 
tween the shifts. A trombone constructed with this extra valve 
gave 10 positions instead of seven, and the usual length of the 
slide was therefore unnecessary. Similar applications have been 
made both to the trumpet and cornet by M. Antoine Courtois, and 
shake valves, giving a tone or semitone difference in pitch, are 
frequently applied to the slide trombones used by American and 
French solo players. 



INSTRUMENTS WITH CUP-SHAPED MOUTHPIECES. 195 

The most recent application of such an arrangement was used at 
a recital at Trinity College, Cambridge, in February this year (1891). 
A work of Schiitz was performed requiring 



on the bass trombone, and intended for the F instrument (being 
impossible upon the G) ; an attached valve was made by Messrs. 
Boosey and Co. for the G instrument, with tubing to give the tone 
from the low D of the G trombone to the C required. 

An endeavour to simplify the fingering of valved instruments was 
made in i860 by Mr. Richard Carte, who, in conjunction with the 
cornet player Macfarlane, patented a device, by which all the sharps 
and flats could be produced by the depression of an extra valve (giving 
a semitone difference in pitch). This allowed the same fingering 
required for the natural notes, with the addition only of the extra 
valve, thus facilitating the use of certain keys usually difficult of 
execution. Rapid execution, however, was impossible, and, conse- 
quently, the device never became general. 

The use of valves has led at different times to attempts to produce 
a double instrument, by means of two sets of tubings of different pro- 
portions, the air passing into either at the player's will by the depres- 
sion of a valve. Distin endeavoured to combine the trumpet and bugle 
thus, and his example was followed by M. Mahillon. As, however, 
the proportion of the bore of the bugle is so entirely different from 
that of the trumpet, their attempts met with scant success, the true 
quality of both the trumpet and bugle being absent ; and an attempt 
of the same kind was exhibited by M. Chediwa in the Paris Exhibi- 
tion in 1889. A combined euphonion and baryton, or trombone, was 
made by C. G. Conn, of Elkhart, Indiana, U.S.A., three or four years 
ago. The instrument succeeded in America ; the English makers, 
Boosey and Fontaine Besson, have made similar instruments for 
American players. In such a combination both instruments suffer, as 
it is impossible to preserve the true trombone tone, with pistons large 
enough in bore for the euphonion. This defect M. Fontaine Besson 
has endeavoured to correct in his Doublophone, in which the pistons 
are made with two distinct sets of passages and valve tubings, of 

N 2 



196 CATALOGUE OF MUSICAL INSTRUMENTS. 

proper proportions for the euphonion or trombone. The valve, by 
which either set is brought into connection, is placed almost imme- 
diately below the mouthpiece ; hence, only the mouthpiece and a very 
short length of tubing are common to both instruments. 

However ingeniously these double instruments are constructed, such 

devices appear suitable only for a display of virtuosity, and therefore can 

scarcely be considered of much account for any serious musical purpose. 

Valved instruments, as used at the present day, may be said to 

consist of three groups, which are thus formed : — 

ist Group. — Instruments which make use of all the harmonics up to 
the 16th, such as the valve-horn and valve-trumpet.* 8 
2nd Group. — Instruments which make no use of the harmonics 
above the 8th, and which do not habitually employ 
the fundamental sounds, such as cornets, bugles (in- 
cluding all the saxhorns), and valve trombones. 
3rd Group. — Instruments which make no use of the harmonics 
above the 8th, and which employ the fundamental 
sounds, such as euphonions, tubas, &c, and there- 
fore possess in addition a compass of nearly an 
octave below that of instruments in Group 2. 
The earlier valve instruments were the valve-horn, the valve-trumpet, 
and cornet. The latter appears to have been a gradual growth rather 
than an original invention, and can neither be considered as a trumpet 
nor yet as a bugle. Its tubing, almost cylindrical except near the bell, 
resembles that of the trumpet, and yet it makes use of the same 
harmonic sounds as the bugle. It has been said that the cornet is a 
development of the old posthorn ; but if this be in reality the case, all 
trace of that instrument has vanished, for the proportions and tone- 
quality of the cornet are very different. The cornet has been for some 
time one of the most important instruments in military bands ; and 
of late years there has been a growing tendency to replace by its use 
that of the trumpet in the orchestra. This is much to be regretted, 
for the majestic and penetrating quality of the trumpet is completely 
absent in the more common-place, and even vulgar, sound of the 
cornet, more agile though the instrument may be. 

* The scale of the trumpet begins practically at the 3rd harmonic. 



INSTRUMENTS WITH CUP-SHAPED MOUTHPIECES. 197 

The application of the valve to the Kent bugle, or cor-a-clefs, 
about 1843, by Sax, was the origin of a complete family, virtually 
bugles, and called by the generic name of saxhorns. These instru- 
ments have since been known by various names. They consist prin- 
cipally of Fliigel horns, or valve bugles, alt horns, tenor horns, or 
barytons, &c, and are too well known to need further description ; 
their tubing is conical, and their compass, as has been said, lies 
between the 2nd and the 8th harmonics inclusive. They are chiefly 
employed in wind bands, and rarely if ever in the orchestra. 

The instruments mentioned in Group 3, although in reality sax- 
horns, yet differ in that they are constructed with tubing of sufficiently 
large proportion to allow of the production of the fundamental sounds. 
And this peculiarity is turned to account, and thus considerably 
augments their compass, besides producing a full and rich quality of 
tone entirely wanting in instruments of smaller proportions. As the 
notes in the first octave, lower than can be produced upon three- 
valve instruments by the conjunction of several valves, are frequently 
required, a fourth valve, lowering the pitch two and a half tones, 
is very often added, and, for a solo instrument, the fourth valve is 
absolutely necessary. And so, as can be understood, these instruments 
possess the enormous compass of some three and a half octaves. 
This group of instruments are of more recent invention than the other 
valved instruments, and are used now to replace the ophicleides and 
bass horns once employed in military bands, where their introduction 
has proved of the highest value. Introduced of comparatively recent 
years into the orchestra, they are now of general use ; and, indeed, a 
full orchestra that did not possess at least one euphonion and tuba, 
would not be considered complete. The fundamental of the euphonion 
is B,\> or C; of the bass tuba E,\> or F, ; and of the contra-bass 
tuba B u \) or C,. 

There are, besides those just mentioned, another family of valved 
instruments, whose proportions are a sort of compromise between 
those of the horn and of the bugle. They were first described by 
Sax, and called by him saxtrombas ; the mouthpieces resembled those 
of the horn in shape, and were made of suitable sizes. The invention 
of these instruments has been claimed for the German musician 
Wieprecht, and instruments of a somewhat similar nature were certainly 



198 CATALOGUE OF MUSICAL INSTRUMENTS. 

employed at a previous date in the German army. The saxtrombas 
formed a complete family, but only that in E \j or F, which was used 
to replace the horn in military bands, remained in practical use. Of a 
somewhat similar nature is the Koenig horn, constructed by Courtois 
in 1855, and still used in many military bands, and the more recent 
tenor cor, and cornophone. 

Of very similar construction are the tenor-tubas, in B[>, for which 
Wagner has written in his " Nibelungen Tetralogie." Of a compass, 
lying between the 2nd and 12th harmonics inclusive, they were in 
proportion somewhat similar to the horn, and were intended to be 
played by a horn mouthpiece. They had four valves, and a vertical 
bell turned towards the right of the player. The valves gave upon 
the tenor-tubas (not the bass), a half tone, one tone, one and a half 
tones, and two tones. The description of them here given has been 
gathered from an article of the Zeitschrift fur Instrumentenbau (published 
at Leipzig), of Nov. 1st, 1884. 



380. 

Trumpet, in C. This curious looking instrument is one of the 
earliest valve trumpets in existence. The valves are in square boxes ; 
the pistons consist of square blocks of solid brass, the wind passages 
being bored in them ; there are two passages in the same horizontal 
plane. The extra tubing is calculated to lower the pitch of the 
instrument a semitone, and a tone, respectively, for each valve. 
Total length 1 foot ni- inches. Plate X., fig. C. 

Lent by the Conservatoire Royal de Musique, Brussels. 

381. 

Cornet, with two pistons, in A. The bore is exceedingly small, 
being only "38 inches in diameter. The valves are of very early pat- 
tern, being of the construction attributed to Stolzel and Blumel. The 
first valve lowers the pitch of the instrument a semitone, the second 
valve lowers it a tone. The wind-way entering by the bottom of the 
first valve leaves by the bottom of the second, thus necessitating several 
right-angled turns. Engraved " C. Saxe, Bruxelles." Plate XL, fig. B. 

Lent by the Conservatoire Royal de Musique, Brussels. 



INSTRUMENTS WITH CUP-SHAPED MOUTHPIECES. 199 

382. 

Trumpet, in F, with two pistons. The valves are constructed 
upon much the same system as those of the cornets just mentioned. 
They lower the pitch a semitone and a tone respectively. The 
pistons are placed parallel to the length of the instrument. There 
is an additional crook for E\>. Engraved "Potter." Length 1 foot 
g|- inches. 

Lent by Messrs. George Potter and Co. 



383. 

Valve Horn, with three pistons. There are no crooks upon this 
instrument, but with a small crook of the present day the pitch note 
is B\>. The valve mechanism is of Austrian invention, and is formed 
of three pairs of parallel pistons. When all are in their normal 
position, there is a direct wind-way through all three pairs. There 
are three levers or keys, one of which is connected with each pair 
of pistons by a crank action. The depression of a key causes the 
corresponding pair of pistons to rise, and thereby opens an air passage, 
which passes, by a right-angled turn, along the length of one piston, 
through the extra tubing, and returns through the lower end of the 
other piston. This instrument is engraved " Mainz bei B. Schott's 
Sohnen," and probably dates from about 1830. Extreme width 1 foot 
11 inches. Plate XL, fig. E. 

Lent by the Conservatoire Royal de Musique, Brussels. 



384. 

Valve Horn, with three pistons. The valve action can be 
removed altogether. The pitch note of the instrument, as it stands, 
is F. The valve action consists of pairs of pistons, placed very 
similarly to those noticed in No. 383 ; but in this case the .pistons 
descend in order to bring the valve tubing into action. Engraved 
" J. G. Schmidt, in Leipzig," and probably made about 1830. 
Greatest width 22 inches. 

Lent by Messrs. Besson and Co. 



200 CATALOGUE OF MUSICAL INSTRUMENTS. 

385. 

Bass Horn, or Valve Ophicleide, in F. This instrument is 
also called the clavicor. There are three pairs of pistons, and they 
are moved by a mechanism somewhat similar to that applied to the 
modern cylinder action. Each pair of pistons, in rising, opens air- 
ways, which throw the additional tubing into connection with the 
main wind-way of the instrument. The system is very similar to that 
of No. 383. The instrument is of German make, and of very 
indifferent intonation. It is, nevertheless, interesting as showing the 
transition stage between the ophicleide and the euphonion. 

Lent by the Conservatoire Royal de JSIusique, Brussels. 



386. 

Trumpet, with two horizontal valves. Marked " Improved and 
made by Chas. Pace, 49, King Street, Westminster." 

There are three tuning bits, two straight and one bent, and four 
crooks. The instrument, when played, is held horizontally as a slide 
trumpet ; it is intended to be used with the bent tuning bit with every 
crook. With the long straight tuning bit and the bent one, the 
trumpet stands in F. With the different crooks and bent tuning bit, 
it stands in £fc|, E\>, D#, and C respectively. The pitch is much 
flatter than the present regulation pitch, and is closely in agreement 
with the French Diapason Normal. This pitch is about that of the 
Philharmonic Society, under Sir Geo. Smart, about 1830. 

The two valves are formed each by a single short inner tube, 
which slides inside the main tube of the instrument. As the centre 
of this inner tube is stopped, the air-way does not traverse the whole 
length of the valves ; but it is diverted through a side-hole communi- 
cating with a short loop or bridge of tubing, by means of which 
it enters the valve again through another side-hole. A short arm 
projects from the valve through a slot in the main tube, by means 
of which the valve is connected with the actuating finger-piece, to 
which the spring is attached. When the valve is " down," the two 
side-holes, instead of being connected by the short loop or bridge-tube, 
are connected by means of a second loop, long enough to flatten the 



INSTRUMENTS WITH CUP-SHAPED MOUTHPIECES. 201 

pitch a semitone or a tone, according to the valve employed. Probably 

made about 1840. 

Lent by Colonel Shaw-Hellier. 

387. 

Cornet. Reproduction, with two pistons with screws. This shows 
a rather later development of the arrangement of the Stolzel valves. 
The wind-way here enters through the bottom of the second valve, 
and leaves by the bottom of the first. The second valve lowers the 
pitch a semitone, and the first a tone, as in the instruments of the 
present day. The bore, somewhat larger than that of the instrument 
No. 381, is similar to that employed at the present day. 

Lent by Messrs. Besson and Co. 

388. 

Cornet, in B fc>, with three pistons. The wind-way enters by the 
side of the first valve, and leaves by the bottom of the third. This 
model seems to have been universally adopted, and valves thus con- 
structed were in general use up to about 1853. A similar action has, 
for the cheapest models of cornets, practically held its own even up 
to the present day. 

Lent by Messrs. Ward and Sons. 

389. 

Cornet, in B\y. This cornet has valves invented by Adolphe Sax, 
and of very large diameter, all the passages in the pistons being 
disposed in one horizontal plane. The bell is detachable, and is 
attached by means of a ligature screw. Stamped " Ward, Maker, 
Liverpool, 1848." 

Lent by Messrs. Ward and Sons. 

390. 

Cornet, or Cornopean. Engraved " John Kohler, London." 
With embossed silver rim to bell, and Macfarlane's clapper shake 
key. Plate XL, fig. C. The valve system is that described under 
No. 388. 



202 CATALOGUE OF MUSICAL INSTRUMENTS. 

The first application of the clapper shake key upon the cornet is 
due to the cornet player, Macfarlane, who was employed in the 
orchestra at Drury Lane for many years. The clapper shake key 
appears to have been re-introduced by Distin in 1856, provisional 
protection being granted ; the patent, however, was not proceeded 
with. The principle had been applied to the key bugle some years 
previously, and a beautiful instrument having three shake keys, made 
by "John Kohler," may be found described under No. 369. 

Lent by Messrs. Kohler and Son. 

391. 

Cornet, or " Cornetto." This instrument is practically a Fliigel 
horn. The valve construction is very similar to that of No. 388, 
a form almost universally employed for the earlier valve instruments. 
There are no tuning slides to the valves in this instrument, conse- 
quently the intonation must have been very imperfect when the 
instrument became warm, after being played for a short time. Made 
by Butler, of Dublin, about 1830. 

Lent by G. Butler, Esq. 

392. 

Cornet. Engraved " George Smith, Birmingham." A clapper 
shake key appears to have been added to this instrument at some 
subsequent period. 

Lent by Colonel Shaw-Hellier. 

393. 

Cornet, in B \>, with clapper shake key. 

Lent by Messrs. Ward and Sons. 

394. 

Cornet, in C, with clapper shake key. 

Lent by Messrs. Ward and Sons. 



INSTRUMENTS WITH CUP-SHAPED MOUTHPIECES. 203 

395. 

Cornet, in B\>, with shake key. Stamped " Macfarlane's Improved 
Cornopsean. Kohler, Henrietta Street, Covent Garden, London." 

Lent by Messrs. Boosey and Co. 

396. 

Cornet, in B\>, with an extra G crook. With three narrow 
valves with outer screws. The construction of this cornet does not 
differ in any material point from that of No. 388, described on 
page 201. Instruments of this model were used by the Distins on 
their tours from 1839 to 1845. 

Lent by Messrs. Besson and Co. 

397. 

Trumpet, in E\>. This instrument is provided with three valves, 

giving the usual additional lengths of tubing. An interest attaches to 

this specimen, as it is a reproduction of the valve trumpet employed 

by Spontini, who first introduced it in the orchestra of the opera at 

Berlin for the production of his opera " La Vestale." Length 1 foot 

5 inches. 

Lent by Messrs. Besson and Co. 

398. 

Cornet, in B\). Early French model. The valve construction of 
this cornet shows, compared with those previously mentioned, an 
advance in instrument making. 

The wind-way enters at the side of the third valve, and leaves 
by the bottom of the first. Cornets made upon this model are 
still manufactured in France, in cases where cheapness is of more 
consideration than quality of tone. 

Lent by Messrs. Boosey and Co. 

399. 

Cornet, in B\). This instrument is, both as regards construction 
of the valves and disposition of the tubing, a great step in advance 



20 4 CATALOGUE OF MUSICAL INSTRUMENTS. 

of any already described. The second valve is larger than in the 
Stolzel model, and affords room for one horizontal, and two sloping, 
wind-ways. The first and third valves differ little from the Stolzel 
model. There are still several right-angled turns, but the bottoms 
of the valves are not actually employed as wind-ways. Stamped 
" Lausedat. Clermont Ferrand." Probably about 1835. 

Lent by Messrs. Besson and Co. 

400. 

Cornet, in B\>. With three wide valves (Perinet's patent), made 
about 1839. The three valves are constructed with built-up air 
passages, and add additional lengths of tubing equivalent to a semi- 
tone, a tone, and a tone and a half respectively. The construction 
of the bore, and the abrupt turns in the air passages, are very 
greatly modified, but the openings in the valves are larger than the 
corresponding wind passages; there is therefore an angularity when 
the valves are depressed, and hence the disposition of the air passages 
is not equalized, as is the case in instruments of the present day. 
Stamped " Besson, a Paris." 

Lent by Messrs. Besson and Co. 

401. 

Cornet, in B\>. French model. This instrument is merely a 
slight modification of the Perinet model described previously. 

Lent by Messrs. Boosey and Co. 

402. 

Bass, in B\>. Skeleton shape, and 6 feet high. By Adolphe Sax, 
1850. There are three thick valves. All three passages through the 
valves are horizontal, the lower one being for the open notes ; the 
other two, which are in use when the valve is depressed, are placed 
side by side, in the same horizontal plane as in the ordinary German 
cylinder action of the present day. 

Lent by Messrs. Besson and Co. 



INSTRUMENTS WITH CUP-SHAPED MOUTHPIECES. 205 

403. 

Cornet, in B\>. Rodel Besson, 1851. The passage for the open 

notes in this instrument goes straight through the centre of the valves, 

and is circular in section throughout. The passages for the valve 

notes are still considerably constricted, and are disposed at right angles 

to the main passage, the passages in the second valve being larger 

than the corresponding air column. Valves of this description were 

largely used by both French and English makers till within the last 

few years. 

Lent by Messrs. Besson and Co. 

404. 

Cornet, in By. This beautiful instrument, formerly won as a 
prize at the Gymnase, Paris, by a cornet-player named Hulmet, of 
the 55 me du Ligne, is of interest as being probably one of the most 
perfect cornets of the time when it was made. In construction the 
second valve somewhat resembles that of the Perinet, but the first and 
third valves contain holes pierced vertically above each other, and 
connected by a wind-passage having a short semi-circular course built 
up within the valve itself. This system of valves was patented by 
Gustav Besson in 1854; a direct passage was secured for the first 
and third valves, but the passages in the second valve were smaller 
than the corresponding air column. A valve, somewhat similar to the 
first and third valves of this cornet, was employed by Distin, and is 
found in the bass instrument No. 416. Stamped " G. Besson, a Paris." 
This instrument is probably about 1854. 

Lent by Messrs. Besson and Co. 

405. 

A Pair of Trumpets, in E\). With John Shaw's "Patent Lever" 
valves. By John Kohler. Plate X., fig. E. The peculiarity of these 
instruments consists in the unique construction of the valves, which 
were invented by Shaw and patented in 1838. These valves were also 
called " disc valves " by the inventor. They consist of a pair of discs 
or plates, one fixed and one moveable ; the fixed disc has two, and 
the other four, perforations cut of the same diameter as the wind-ways 



206 



CATALOGUE OF MUSICAL INSTRUMENTS. 



of the instrument. These plates are formed with perfectly true faces, 
which move freely upon each other. The fixed disc carries upon it 
two lengths of tubing, one for the normal position of the valve, and 
one for the supplementary wind-way, which latter is thrown in in place 
of the former when the disc is rotated by means of the depression 
of a lever or touch-piece. This valve, however theoretically perfect, 
was found not to answer : the difficulty of keeping the plates air-tight 
was too great to be overcome. 

Mr. Kohler made instruments constructed upon this principle for 
some years, and introduced a rather different disposition of the air- 
passages, thereby securing greater rapidity of execution. The valves 
employed were modifications of this. The difference consisted in the 
moveable discs having but two very short crescents of tubing fixed 
upon them, instead of the whole supplementary wind-way as before. 
The extra length of tubing was placed upon the fixed plate, which, 
in this case, was pierced with four openings. The outside appear- 
ance of the moveable valve plate was merely that of a flat plate, 
with • two bulb-like excrescences. When the valve was rotated by 
means of a lever, the extra tubing was brought into use. The 
engraving, a facsimile of that in Mr. Kohler's original prospectus, 




Patent Lever Cornet. 



shows a cornet constructed with the improved patent lever valves ; 
and these valves were applied to brass instruments of all sizes. 

The jury of the Great Exhibition of 1851 apparently thought well 
of this principle, and remarked that " the ingenious contrivance for 



INSTRUMENTS WITH CUP-SHAPED MOUTHPIECES. 207 

obtaining a free wind course to the valve instrument is highly suc- 
cessful." But notwithstanding this eulogium, the valves were found 
to leak eventually, and soon became useless, and the principle was 
therefore abandoned. 

Lent by Messrs. Kohler and Son. 



406. 

Barytone, in B\>. With six pistons, and parabolic funnel-shaped 
bell, which can be turned so as to direct the sound where required. 
This instrument is constructed upon the celebrated six-piston system 
invented by Adolphe Sax. The piston action here is the reverse of 
the modern arrangement, the pistons cutting off successive lengths of 
tubing, in place of adding. The fundamental pitch of the instrument 
is E (written f§), the nominal pitch of b\> (written c) being obtained 
by the depression of the first valve, which shuts off the extra tubing. 
The depression of each successive valve cuts off tubing, raising the 
pitch a semitone. It will be seen, therefore, that instruments made 
in accordance with this system give seven independent positions, 
absolutely accurate in intonation, it not being possible to use any two 
valves together. Engraved " No. 30015, Nouveau Saxhorn Baryton 
en Si \f. Adolphe Saxe. Facteur. Brevete." 

The harmonics employed are from the 2nd to the 8th inclusive. 
The open tube gives the following series : — 

J- 






j=fr*=£ 



n* 



The pistons when depressed give the following successions : — 






H=P£ 



u — ■ u 



^--*" 



& 



%lh 



** 



4M 



£2 



«y§ 



hM. 



\r+ 



yj 



5 



# 



1 — ±r 



_fe* 



^ 



1 



Lent by Messrs. Besson and Co. 



2o8 CATALOGUE OF MUSICAL INSTRUMENTS. 

407. 

Euphonion, in B\>. With seven pistons and moveable funnel-shaped 
bell. By A. Sax, 1854. The six pistons are independent, and pro- 
duce the same successions as described for the barytone preceding. 
The seventh piston, worked by the thumb of the left hand, is, in its 
normal position, down, and when raised it lowers the pitch of the 
instrument by two tones and a half. It can be used in conjunction 
with any one of the others, and is intended to produce the same 
results as are obtained by means of the fourth valve upon modern 

instruments. _ ,, _ , _ 

Lent by Messrs. Besson and Co, 

408. 

Bombardon, in E\). With six pistons and moveable funnel-shaped 
bell. By A. Sax. 1854. The principle involved is as described above. 
The instrument is engraved " Nouveau Saxhorn Contrebass en E\>. 
Adolphe Saxe. Facteur. Brevete." Plate VIII., fig. C. 

Lent by Messrs. Besson and Co. 

409. 

Flugel Horn, in B\>. With three descending and one ascending 
valve. The ascending valve cuts off tubing equal to a rise in pitch of 
one tone ; the other three valves descend by a tone, semitone, and 
tone and a half respectively. This was the old model used in the 
French infantry, and made by Adolphe Sax in 1854. Length 19 inches. 

Lent by Messrs. Besson and Co. 

410. 

Trumpet. With six pistons. By Gustav Besson, 1855. This 

instrument is constructed upon the six-piston system invented by 

Adolphe Sax. 

Lent by Messrs. Besson and Co. 

411. 

Euphonion. With six pistons. By Gustav Besson, 1855. 

Lent by Messrs. Besson and Co. 



INSTRUMENTS WITH CUP-SHAPED MOUTHPIECES. 200. 

412. 
Trombone. With six pistons. By Gustav Besson, 1855. There 
is an alternative bell, which can be used to replace the ordinary one 
when it is desired to throw the sound behind the player. 
Lent by Messrs. Besson and Co. 

413. 

Tenor Flugel Horn. With five valves (two ascending and three 

descending). By Adolphe Sax, 1856. The valves of this instrument 

could not be worked, and the pitch and system could not therefore 

be ascertained. __ _, , 

Lent by Messrs. Besson and Co. 



414. 

Euphonion, in B \). Called 
" Besson's Transpositeur," and 
made by Gustav Besson. This 
instrument is of interest as being 
one of the early attempts to rectify 
the lower register of brass instru- 
ments. It formed the subject of a 
patent in France in 1859, an d pro- 
visional protection was granted in 
the same year for the invention 
in England. Each of the piston 
valves is furnished with twice the 
usual number of openings and air 
passages ; one set communicates 
with a set of piston tubes of the 
ordinary length, the other with an 
additional set of rather longer pis- 
ton tubes, which are calculated to 
produce sounds exactly a semitone 
lower in pitch than the former. 
The fourth valve, called the registre, 
or "transposing stop," is worked 
by the left hand. In the normal 




210 



CATALOGUE OF MUSICAL INSTRUMENTS. 



position of the fourth valve the shorter set of tubings upon the first, 
second, and third valves are in use ; upon the depression of the fourth 
valve the longer set of tubings are employed. The pistons are de- 
pendent, the fourth valve, when used alone, lowering the pitch of the 
instrument a semitone. The use of this arrangement rendered the 
following scales, usually difficult or impossible, easy of execution, viz. : 
those of D\>, G\>, A, and B, whilst the intonation of the harmonic 
series of E and of the lower register became perfectly true. 

The system, compared with the same maker's patent of 1857, 
described upon page 189, and which was made with independent 
positions, is simpler ; and the reduction of the number of air passages 
through the registre, or fourth valve, renders the instrument less liable 
to get out of order. 

The same system was applied to all brass instruments, and in the 
case of the basses, the registre, or " transposing stop," instead of 

lowering the pitch a semitone, lowered it a 
perfect fourth, the duplicate valve tubings 
being constructed of the necessary addi- 
tional length. 

Lent by Messrs. Besson and Co. 

415. 

Barytone, in B \>, with five valves. 
Made by Gustav Besson about 1857. The 
first, second, and third valves lower the 
pitch of the instrument a tone, semitone, 
and tone and a half respectively. The 
fourth valve cuts off tubing, and so raises 
the pitch one tone. The fifth valve lowers 
the pitch of the instrument a semitone. 

Instruments constructed upon this sys- 
tem were invented in 1857 by Gustav 
Besson and patented in France. They 
were known by the name " enharmo- 
nique," there being 32 different positions; 
their use presented many advantages, as 
regards both intonation and facilities for 




INSTRUMENTS WITH CUP-SHAPED MOUTHPIECES. 211 



execution in all keys. This can be better understood by referring to 
the tablature below; the fingering of each series is placed above. 



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The intonation of the seventh harmonics, printed as crotchets, is, of 
course, not in accordance with any temperament employed in modern 
music. The notes printed as semibreves are produced with simple 
fingering; those printed as minims are produced by the aid of 
special fingering. The two additional valves, acting as transposers, 
simplify the fingering of certain keys, usually of very difficult, if not 

o 2 



212 



CATALOGUE OF MUSICAL INSTRUMENTS. 



impossible, execution, besides allowing for the production of shakes 
of all kinds upon every note of the chromatic scale. The annexed 
engraving, a facsimile of that in M. Besson's specification of 
December i, 1857, shows the position of the extra tubing and valves, 
as originally designed for a cornet thus constructed. This system 
was shortly afterwards applied to all brass instruments. 




A rather different arrangement, but designed with much the same 
object, had been made by M. Gustav Besson in 1855. To reduce the 
mechanism a single rotary cylinder, constructed with two separate 



■**?■*■ 



Ify.. 4. 





touch-pieces which could be moved either way, was employed. This 
enabled, by the use of each cylinder, three separate positions to be 
obtained. The diagram, a facsimile of that in the French specification 



INSTRUMENTS WITH CUP-SHAPED MOUTHPIECES. 213 

of 1855, enables this to be more easily understood. Fig. 3 represents 
the exterior of one of the cylinders. Fig. 4 is a section ; the extra 
tubing may be, of course, of any length required. A, B, and C (Fig. 4) 
show the different positions of the cylinder when at rest, and when 
depressed either way. This arrangement, as practically employed, 
allowed of twenty-six different positions, and the diameter of the wind 
passages through the cylinders not being constricted, the intonation 
of the instrument did not suffer. 

Lent by Messrs. Besson and Co. 

416. 

B \f Contra-Bass. A monster model, made by Henry Distin for 
use in the " Fliigel Horn Union" in 1862. With three valves; there 
are two passages only in each valve. The four holes in each piston, 
being placed vertically above each other, are connected in pairs by 
semi-circular passages built up within the valves, so that there is no 
abrupt turn in any of the wind passages. The height of this instru- 
ment from the ground is nearly eight feet. 

Lent by Messrs. Boosey and Co. 

417. 

Euphonion. With extra set of slides to tune " fourth valve notes." 
This instrument shows an early device to bring the notes produced 
by the fourth valve into tune. There are two distinct sets of passages 
through the valves, and corresponding lengths of tubings ; the lower 
set of three passages in each valve is ordinarily in use ; the upper set 
of three passages in each valve, and duplicate set of tubings, comes 
into use only when the fourth valve is down. The instrument as it 
stands is in B\}. With the fourth valve depressed the pitch is lowered 
to F, the duplicate valve tubings being tuned to agree with this note. 
This system was probably designed originally by Antoine Courtois, 
but discarded by him subsequently, and it somewhat resembles that 
employed by Gustav Besson in his " registre " of 1857, described 
previously. 

Lent by Messrs. Higham and Co. 



2i 4 CATALOGUE OF MUSICAL INSTRUMENTS. 

418. 

Euphonion, in B\>. With long fourth valve. The tubing in con- 
nection with the first, second, and third valves passes through the 
fourth valve. In the fourth valve there are extra passages, so placed 
that when the valve is down a duplicate set of tubing is brought into 
action with the first, second, and third valves. This duplicate set of 
tubings is tuned to agree with F, which becomes the pitch note of 
the instrument when the fourth valve is down. The extreme length 
of the fourth valve, and the fact that there are nine distinct passages 
through it, constitutes the weak point in this arrangement of pistons. 
This system was designed originally by Adolphe Sax. Stamped " Distin, 
London," and probably made about 1867. 

Lent by Messrs. Boosey and Co. 

419. 

Trombone, in B\>. Large calibre, with four compensating pistons. 
Made by Boosey and Co. With the fourth valve down this instrument 
can be used as a bass trombone in F; as by the compensating 
arrangement, the valve slides, on the depression of the fourth valve, 
are automatically adjusted to the lengths required for an instrument 
in F. 

This instrument was designed by Mr. D. J. Blaikley, and made as 
an experiment in 1874. The essential difference between the valve 
system employed, and any other previously designed on a " compen- 
sating" principle, lies in the reduction of the number of passages 
through the valves. The idea, as worked out for three-valve instru- 
ments, became the subject of the " Compensating Pistons " patent in 
1878 (No. 4618), and described, in the introduction to this section, 

upon page 191. 

Lent by Messrs. Boosey and Co. 



420. 

Cornet, in B\>. By Antoine Courtois, with removeable echo attach- 
ment. This instrument is one of the original cornets of this maker, 
made about the year preceding his death. 



INSTRUMENTS WITH CUP-SHAPED MOUTHPIECES. 215 

The echo attachment appears to have been either invented, or 
introduced into England, by the late Mr. John Kohler, instrument 
maker, of Henrietta Street. It consisted then, as in this instrument, 
merely of an extra bell with a contracted mouth, which could be 
brought into play by the depression of a piston. Whether the credit 
of the invention does not belong rightly to Sax is extremely doubtful, 
for these echo cornets appear to have been made by both Sax in 
Paris, and in England by Distin, much about the same time. The 
Sunday Times, however, of Sept. 11, 1859, ascribes the invention to 
Mr. Kohler. No patent would appear to have been taken out for it, 
and the idea was adopted universally by all instrument makers. 

Lent by Colonel Shaw-Hellier. 

421. 

Cornet, in B\>. By Courtois. Koenig model. Shown as an 
example of a cornet largely used at the present day. 

Lent by S. A. Chappell, Esq. 

422. 

Cornet, in B\>, with three light valves. By Boosey and Co. The 
valve is the " Patent Light Valve " of Mr. Hy. Distin slightly modified. 
The patent has expired. 

Lent by Messrs. Boosey and Co. 

423. 

Cornet, with piston water-key. This appliance, outwardly resem- 
bling a supplementary piston, permits the moisture to be removed from 
the instrument without removing the mouthpiece from the lips. 

Lent by Messrs. Rudall, Carte and Co. 

424. 

Cornet, in B\>. With Mahillon's regulating pistons. For an 
explanation of the "regulating" pistons, an ingenious device for securing 
correct intonation, see the introduction to this section, page 193. 

Lent by Messrs. Mahillon and Co. 



216 CATALOGUE OF MUSICAL INSTRUMENTS. 

425. 

Cornet, modern. By Butler, London, 1890. 
Lent by G. Butler, Esq. 

426. 

Cornet-Arban. The system upon which this instrument is con- 
structed was invented and patented in France in November 1883 by 
M. J. B. Arban. The instrument stands in C, thus playing the written 
sounds, and not as a transposing instrument. There are four valves, 
the first, second, and third being placed as ordinary pistons and lowering 
the pitch a tone, semitone, and tone and a half respectively ; the fourth 
is a cylinder connected with a lever, and is worked by the middle finger 
of the left hand, lowering the pitch of the instrument a tone and a half. 
The slide of the third piston is fitted with a mechanism, worked by 
the index finger of the left hand, by which it can be lengthened 
instantly to produce a difference in pitch of two tones, instead of a 
tone and a half, its normal position. The pistons therefore lower the 
pitch a semitone successively, giving the harmonic series of B$, B\>, 
A H, and A \>. Hence, there are five positions upon the instrument, 
providing notes of perfectly accurate intonation. To render this system 
absolutely perfect, there must be two more positions. These are 
arranged for by an ingenious piece of mechanism, which connects the 
slides of the first and second pistons with the lever of the fourth, 
and therefore when the latter is depressed, the slides of the first and 
second pistons are automatically lengthened, closing again when the 
lever of the fourth valve is released. 

The tablature of this instrument gives in all a choice of twenty-one 
different positions, instead of seven ; and hence, it allows for the 
production of numerous enharmonic intervals, usually possible only 
upon the slide trombone, or stringed instruments, such as the violin. 
The system can, of course, be applied to all valved instruments, and 
with the larger varieties has much to recommend it. A complete 
method was written for this most ingenious instrument by the inventor, 
M. Arban, the celebrated cornet player, and late professor at the 
Conservatoire, Paris. 



INSTRUMENTS WITH CUP-SHAPED MOUTHPIECES. 217 

M. Arban finding that the additional weight of this cornet, com- 
bined with the complicated mechanism, was a serious obstacle to its 
being generally adopted by artists, produced the year following, in 
conjunction with M. Bouvet, an instrument of simpler construction. 

M. Bouvet, a civil engineer, had already turned his attention to 
the construction of valved instruments, and had invented a system 
of unique design, and which had many advantages. It consisted in 
the employment of seven independent positions, for which six pistons 
were required. To simplify the fingering the octave and super-octave 
harmonics only were employed, the flats and sharps being produced 
by the depression of two touch-pieces, connected with two cylinders 
of peculiar construction, called distributeurs mecaniques. The system, 
although patented in France in 1884, does not seem to have been 
followed up by the inventor. 

MM. Arban and Bouvet produced in conjunction in 1885 an instru- 
ment having the advantages of the Arban cornet of 1884, but without 
the complicated mechanism. In the Arban-Bouvet cornet there were 
the same 21 positions; but practically 14 only were employed. And the 
success of this instrument, the use of which M. Arban rendered 
obligatory for his pupils, was such that a further improvement was 
made, by which the system was applied to cornets with three pistons 
only. The Arban-Bouvet system was also applied generally to brass 
instruments of all kinds. 

Lent by S. A. Chappell, Esq. 

427. 

Flugel Horn, in B\>. With three patent compensating pistons. 
By Boosey and Co. 

Lent by Messrs. Boosey and Co. 

428. 
Horn. With two pistons and four crooks. By Antoine Courtois. 
Shown as an example of an instrument much employed. The model 
is copied from that of Raoux, whose instruments are now scarce, and 
highly prized by horn players. Greatest width 22 inches. 

Lent by S. A. Chappell, Esq. 



2l8 



CATALOGUE OF MUSICAL INSTRUMENTS. 



429. 

Horn. With three pistons and four crooks. By Antoine Courtois. 
Of a similar model to preceding instrument, but with the addition of 
the third valve. Greatest length 44 inches, greatest width 21^ inches. 

Lent by S. A. Chappell, Esq. 



430. 

Tenor Saxhorn, in E\>. With three light valves. By Boosey 

and Co. 

Lent by Messrs. Boosey and Co. 



431. 



With three light valves. By 



Tenor Cor, in F, with E\> crook. 
Boosey and Co. 

The tenor cor has a bell of the French horn type, though not 
quite so wide across the mouth. The mouth pipe of the instrument 
tapers down to fit a mouthpiece, the shank of which is, in size, 
between that of the French horn and tenor saxhorn. The cup of 
the mouth-piece is a deep cone, and this, combined with the taper 

of the instrument, results in produc- 
ing a tone quality much resembling 
that of the French horn. Exact 
imitation is, of course, impossible, 
since the same notes upon the horn 
are related to a different funda- 
mental, the eighth harmonic on 
the horn corresponding with the 
fourth upon this instrument. 

The tenor cor is an improvement 
upon the tenor saxhorn, which, 
being virtually a bugle, has too bold 
a tone to replace the horn. The 
Koenig horn, designed for the same purpose in 1855 by the player 
Koenig, and made by Antoine Courtois, was a saxhorn constructed in 




Tenor Cor. 



INSTRUMENTS WITH CUP-SHAPED MOUTHPIECES. 219 

the shape of the horn and with a downward bell ; it differed little in 
its proportions from the ordinary tenor saxhorn ; a slight deepening of 
the cup of the mouth-piece and the position of the bell somewhat 
modified the tone. The Koenig horn and tenor cor are both used in 
military bands in which French horns do not exist. 

Lent by Messrs. Boosey and Co. 



432. 

Cornophone, in F, with alternative slide for E\>. By Besson and 
Co. The instrument is virtually an improved tenor saxhorn, but as 
the proportions of the bore are different, 
and the taper is much greater, the tone- 
quality more nearly resembles that of 
the French horn. The mouthpiece is 
a deep cone, almost exactly like that of 
the horn. 

These instruments are constructed of 
various sizes, so as to form a complete 
family ; and certain of them have been 
lately employed by M. Lamoureux, in his 
orchestra at Paris, in place of tubas, for 

the performance of portions of Wagner's Cornophone. 

" Walkiire." 

Lent by Messrs. Besson and Co. 




433. 

Barytone Saxhorn or Althorn, in B\). By Boosey and Co. 
With three compensating pistons. 

Lent by Messrs. Boosey and Co. 



434. 

Euphonion, in C. Four compensating pistons ; engraved and 
electro - plated. The euphonion in C is commonly used in the 



220 



CATALOGUE OF MUSICAL INSTRUMENTS. 



orchestra, the B \> instrument being the more suitable for military 
bands. 





Euthonion. With Compensating Pistons. 



The false intonation below 






-ei- 



inherent in the ordinary four-valve instrument, is by the compensating 

principle corrected, so that a true chromatic scale can be obtained 

down to the pedal C, without false fingering. And as can be seen 

from the engraving the extra weight of this arrangement is almost 

nothing. 

Lent by Messrs. Boosey and Co. 



435. 



Euphonion, with extra short action. The short action in this and 
the instruments numbered 439 and 442 is gained by constructing the 
air passages through the valves with a sectional area of oval shape. 
Hence, without diminishing the section of the wind-ways, it is possible 



INSTRUMENTS WITH CUP-SHAPED MOUTHPIECES. 221 

to place the holes in the pumps at a greatly diminished vertical 
interval. This "oval bore" has been employed by different makers 
at various times, and is popular with some professional players on 
account of the rapidity of the shake it allows of, which is nearly as 
rapid as that obtained by a cylinder action. 

Lent by Messrs. Rudall, Carte and Co. 

436. 

Euphonion, in B\>. By Boosey & Co. With four compensating 

pistons. Used both for harmonies and as a solo instrument in military 

and brass bands. 

Lent by Messrs. Boosey and Co. 



437. 

Euphonion. With five valves. By 
Besson & Co. The valve system is 
that usually applied to four-valve in- 
struments. The fifth valve lowers the 
pitch a semitone, and thus is useful 
as a transposer, transposing instan- 
taneously a semitone lower. The use 
of this extra valve allows too of the 
production of certain notes, i.e. B, $ 
and C$, that do not exist upon the 
ordinary four-valved instruments. By 
the help of the fifth valve certain 
scales, usually difficult or impossible, 
are of easy execution ; while the 
intonation of the notes, 



usually sharp, is corrected. 

Lent by Messrs. Besson and Co. 




Euphonion. With Five Valves. 



222 CATALOGUE OF MUSICAL INSTRUMENTS. 

438. 
Tuba, in F. With four compensating pistons. By Boosey and Co. 
The larger bass saxhorns, and modern varieties of them, are usually 
called tubas in the orchestra, and bombardons in military bands, the 
difference is merely in the name. The lowest open note of this 
instrument is t^t 



-e>- 

but effective valve notes can be produced down to 



^; 



from which note to the upper limit of the compass of the instrument 
there is a complete chromatic scale of about 35- octaves. 
Lent by Messrs. Boosey and Co. 

439. 

Bombardon, in E\>, with extra short action. The action is similar 
to that described under No. 435. 

Lent by Messrs. Rudall, Carte and Co. 

440. 

Bombardon, in E\). By Boosey and Co. With three compensating 

pistons. 

Lent by Messrs. Boosey and Co. 

441. 

Tuba, in C. By Boosey and Co. With three compensating 

pistons. This instrument is an octave lower in pitch than the eupho- 

nion in C. 

Lent by Messrs. Boosey and Co. 

442. 

Contra-Bass, in B\}. An octave lower than the euphonion in B\>. 
This instrument has the short action described under No. 435. 
Lent by Messrs. Rudall, Carte and Co. 



INSTRUMENTS WITH CUP-SHAPED MOUTHPIECES. 223 

443. 

Contra-Bass, in B\>. With three compensating pistons. By 

Boosey and Co. 

Lent by Messrs. Boosey and Co. 

444. 

Antoniophone, or Snail Model. By Adolphe Sax. This curious- 
looking instrument is merely an ordinary bombardon ; the tubing is 
arranged so that the instrument may resemble a snail shell as much 
as is possible, the valves, three in number, being in the centre of the 
coils. The bell is detachable, and the instrument can be played either 
with the bell uppermost, or under the arm, as that of a French horn. 

The shape was originally designed by the late Antoine Courtois, 
and was named after the inventor. 

Lent by Messrs. Besson and Co. 

445. 

Euphonion, with three pistons. The bell can be turned so as 
to throw the sound in any diiection required. Instruments thus 
constructed were made by Gustav Besson, from 1851 to 1855, and 
called by him Neoform. The moveable bells were, however, made 
both by Courtois and by Adolphe Sax about the same period. The 
tubing of this instrument is wound round itself in snail fashion, the 
valve mechanism being inside. The extreme width is 205- inches. 

Lent by Messrs. Besson and Co. 

446. 

Tenor Saxhorn, with seven distinct bells. Designed by the cornet 
player Distin, who used to play upon it at various places of entertain- 
ment. The instrument is said to have cost its designer in experiments 
and actual workmanship nearly £400 ! This extraordinary instrumental 
curiosity was made between i860 and 1865. There are six (indepen- 
dent) ascending pistons, the system being that of Sax, described 
previously. 

There is also an echo bell, which can be used with any one of 
the pistons, by the depression of a supplementary valve, at the player's 



224 CATALOGUE OF MUSICAL INSTRUMENTS. 

will. An instrument somewhat similar to this, made by Sax, is now 
in the Museum of the Conservatoire at Brussels. 

Lent by Messrs. Boosey and Co. 

447. 

Horn, with valve attachment. By Moritz. The valve attachment 
is placed just below the mouthpiece, and puts the instrument in B\>. 
The valves lower the pitch a semitone and a tone respectively. The 
total length of the tubing is 3 feet 11 inches, the instrument being 
shaped like a large U- 

Lent by the Grosshersogliches Museum in Darmstadt. 

448. 

Flugel Horn (Soprano), in E\j. Formerly used in French bands, 
but abandoned in 1850, as being too fatiguing to blow. 

Lent by Messrs. Besson and Co. 

449. 

Trumpet, in E\>. With removeable chromatic attachment. Ex- 
hibited in the 1851 Exhibition. Length 1 foot 6 inches. 

Lent by Messrs. Besson and Co. 

450. 

Trumpet, in E\>, three valves. Formerly used in French cavalry 
bands. The instrument is practically only an ordinary chromatic 
trumpet; the bell is placed upright, like that of a modern euphonion. 
Length 2 feet 1 inch. 

Lent by Messrs. Besson and Co. 

451. 

Quartett of Flugel Horns. Used formerly by the bands of 
the French Chasseurs a pied. 

Lent by Messrs. Besson and Co. 



INSTRUMENTS WITH CUP-SHAPED MOUTHPIECES. 225 



452. 

Horn, in C. By Moritz. This instrument is in shape very similar 
to No. 447, but has not the chromatic attachment described. 
Lent by the Grossherzogliches Museum in Darmstadt. 

453. 

Valve French Horn. With upright bell, as formerly used in 
the Russian Army. By Gustav Besson. Length 25^ inches. 
Lent by Messrs. Besson and Co. 

454. 

Barytone. French regulation pattern. Remarkable only for the 
poorness of its design. 

Lent by Messrs. Besson and Co. 

455. 

Trumpet. Ovoid shape. By Hatsany, 1840. The tubing of this 
trumpet is wound in a flat convolute of oval plan, in order to shorten 
the length of the instrument. An additional length of tubing, brought 
into use by the depression of a valve, lowers the pitch a tone. 
Length 1 foot 2^ inches. 

Lent by Messrs. Besson and Co. 

456. 

Slide Trombone (Alto), in F. With one piston, lowering the 
instrument a fourth, in order to facilitate the production of the notes 
usually gained by the employment of the seventh position. By 
Gustav Besson. Length 1 foot n inches. 

Lent by Messrs. Besson and Co. 

457. 

In order to show in detail the construction of some of the most 
important valve actions that have been used from time to time upon 
brass instruments, the following models were exhibited : — 

1. A model of the action generally attributed to Stolzel, and con- 
sisting of two pistons only, both being of an exceedingly small bore. 

p 



226 



CATALOGUE OF MUSICAL INSTRUMENTS. 



This action is in every way similar to that employed in the cornet 
made by Ch. Sax, of Brussels, and previously described (No. 381). 

2. A model of an action frequently employed in the early days of 
valve instruments ; there are three pistons, the arrangement of the 
air-passages and extra tubing being similar to that described under 
No. 388. 

3. A model of the early French action described under No. 398. 

4. A model of an action designed by Adolphe Sax. The pistons are 
unusually thick, and, for the size of the bore, very heavy. The 
diameter of the bore is only '38 inch. The passages for the open 
notes run straight through the centre of the valves. When the valve 
is depressed, the passages bringing the extra tubing into connection are 
disposed at right angles to the main windway. 

5. A model of the system called " Besson's Clear Bore." This 
action was patented in France in 1S55 by Gustav Besson, and it was 
virtually an improvement upon that of Perinet. Previous to this the 
passage of the second valve presented an angularity, and consequently 
the notes produced by the combination of 1 + 2, or 2 + 3, or 1 + 2 + 3 

valves were of bad quality. The 
pistons in this action preserved the 
same sectional area of the wind 
column throughout, and allowed a 
bullet, fitting the bore exactly, to 
pass through, in whatever posi- 
tion the valves might be. Eight 
pistons of different kinds were 
included in the patent, and they 
could be assembled in 512 different ways ! And M. Besson's second 
valve could be used with first and third pistons of the Perinet or 
Rodel design. 

The engraving, a facsimile of that in the French specification, 
represents the usual form of the action as first made, the springs 
being placed below the pumps. The specification itself should be 
consulted for further detail. 

6. A sectional model of the "Courtois" action, made by Henry Distin. 

7. A sectional model of the " Patent Light Valve " invented by 
Henry Distin. This "light" valve is largely used now by various 




a 



569s 



gmamg 



!CI 



INSTRUMENTS WITH CUP-SHAPED MOUTHPIECES. 227 

instrument makers, the patent having expired long since. The piston, 
or pump, is made of a single tube of metal only ; the air-passages are 
fastened into it with silver solder. The spindle and spring were also 
included in the patent. Previous to this valves had been made of two 
tubes, one placed inside the other, the inner tube being previously 
fitted with the air-passages. The extra weight of this latter arrange- 
ment, and its consequent influence upon rapid execution, is of course 
evident. 

8. A sectional model of the " Compensating Pistons " invented by 
Mr. D. J. Blaikley, and made by Messrs. Boosey and Co. The 
compensating pistons are described at length in the introduction to 
this section. 

9. Two models of the "Cylinder" action. This arrangement is 
largely used in Germany and Austria. The pump is replaced by a 
four-way cock of brass, turned perfectly true, and moved by a series 
of cranks connected with a key. The action is extremely delicate, but 
for solo playing has many advantages, not the least being the very 
rapid and singularly clear shake of which it is capable. Indeed, the 
rapidity of a shake produced thus can be equalled only by that upon 
the flute. 



Note. — As it has been found almost impracticable to adopt a uniform 
scheme of comparative pitch notation for instruments of all families, 
described in this work, without danger of misconceptions arising in certain 
important cases, the following may be useful. The notation shows in real 
sounds the 4th harmonics produced : the 4th harmonic being the usual 
tuning- note upon most brass instruments. 



As sounded 



_■ 1« 

I? , . J t h « — It 



3m 



$i= 



r-*-\ 



"« hi 



3.E, hj. a x t £-0 g-- 

<0 S=CQ nS "^Ly §9 

c^ c ^ a w - _c^ .0.: 

B! 



g- °j= i| 



±M- 



As written 



- ^ : —trr 



v 2 



( 228 ) 

XII. 

CLASS-INSTRUMENTS OF PERCUSSION. 

THE employment of instruments of percussion appears to date 
from very remote times. Instruments of this kind are now 
usually classified as follows : — 

(i) Those of definite sonorousness, such as harmonica and 
kettledrums. 

(2) Those of indefinite sonorousness, such as the large drum 
(grosse caisse) and the side drum (caisse claire) used in the 
orchestra, or in military bands ; also cymbals, triangles, 
sistra, &c. 

The introduction of the drum to Europe has frequently been 
attributed to the Moors, who are said to have brought it from the 
East with other musical instruments. Whether this idea can be 
accepted as correct is extremely doubtful. It is, nevertheless, certain 
that the drum was used in Germany from very early times, and it 
seems more than probable that the use of this instrument was first 
adopted by the Romans, from the East, and carried by their con- 
quests into different countries of Europe, whence it became generally 
adopted. That we must look to the East for the real origin of the 
drum appears absolutely certain ; for the earliest civilization was of 
course Eastern, and the old sculptures — Assyrian, Egyptian, and 
Indian — prove beyond doubt the ancient popularity of the instru- 
ment, and many varieties of drums are described in Sanskrit musical 
treatises of early date. 

In England the drum appears to have been early adopted, and 
it had different forms. The earliest reference to the use of the "big 
drum " in this country appears in Froissart, who states that it was 
used at the entry of King Edward III. into Calais in 1347, and 
subsequent to this year its use seems to have been adopted in France. 
Upon the stalls of the Cathedral at Rouen, which date from 1467, 
is an interesting representation of the instrument. Froissart mentions 
another variety of drum which he calls nacaire. Now naqqareh 
is the word still employed in Arabia, Persia, and India for drums, 



CLASS— INSTRUMENTS OF PERCUSSION. 229 

and it is applied generally to kettledrums. Whether kettledrums 
were meant by Froissart, or not, is a point of great interest ; for, unless 
this is so, the use of the kettledrum in England would not appear 
to have been adopted until a very much later date, about 1606. 
Kettledrums, however, were in use in Germany at a period more 
remote, and Prsetorius (Syntagma, 1618), gives an illustration of a pair 
of kettledrums, tuned by means of screws, and which differ little in 
appearance from those of modern times. In Nicholls' well-known 
Progression of James 1st mention is made of the entertainment of 
Christian IV. of Denmark, and H. Roberts, quoted by Nicholls, 
describes particularly the kettledrums then used. As this is apparently 
the first mention of the use of the instrument in England, it is better 
to quote the passage ; he says, " the King of Denmark's drume, riding 
upon a horse, with two drumes, one on each side of the horse's 
necke, whereon hee strooke two little mallets of wood, a thing verie 
admirable to the common sorte, and much admired." 

The side-drums of two centuries ago, and earlier periods, were of 
much larger size than the small modern instruments. It has some- 
times been said that the popularity of the drum dates from the time 
of Richard I., who had become accustomed to their use during the 
Crusades, and it is certain that from that period the drum became 
recognised in this country as an essentially military instrument. It 
was frequently carried upon the back of a man, who walked imme- 
diately in front of the drummer, and this practice was continued till 
the latter half of the last century. There are many old prints still to 
be met with that show this. A method somewhat similar was applied 
to kettledrums, and many of the works upon pageantry, which contain 
illustrations, show kettledrums carried in this manner. The side-drums, 
up till the reign of Queen Elizabeth, were, as has been said, of very 
large size. They were carried almost horizontally at the left side of the 
player, and were of course beaten upon one head only. In point of 
size they were rather larger than the tenor drum of the present day, 
and which is occasionally used in military bands. Thoinot Arbeau 
(Orchesographie, 1589) gives an illustration of the side drummer of that 
date, and from contemporary works it seems that this method of using 
the instrument was universal. Prastorius and Pere Mersenne, too, 
describe the use of the drum ; and it is interesting to note that the 



230 CATALOGUE OF MUSICAL INSTRUMENTS. 

employment of the snare is noticed by all three writers. These side- 
drums were generally played in bands, associated with fifes of various 
kinds, and in the 16th century the use of these bands had become 
almost as universal as at the present day. 

Of the introduction of the drum into the orchestra it is more easy 
to speak with certainty. Left previously to military use exclusively, 
they were first introduced in the orchestra of the Grande Ecurie by 
Lully, and since that time have been considered a necessary adjunct. 
At first a single pair of kettledrums were employed ; Berlioz, how- 
ever, introduced the use of three, and this number is now to be 
found in most large orchestras in Europe. According to M. Lavoix 
(Histoire de I' Instrumentation), the side-drum — caisse claire — was made 
use of by Marais, a composer now almost forgotten, who lived from 
1636 to % 1728 ; and it was employed with effect in the tempest scene 
in his opera of " Alcione." Gluck afterwards made use of it in 
" Iphigenie en Tauride," and the example thus set was followed 
generally by other composers. The tambourine, or tambour de basque, 
was once used in military bands, but, except for special effects, its 
use has long since been discontinued. 

Of other percussion instruments it is only necessary to state that, 
of Eastern origin, they are used merely as rhythmical accompani- 
ments. Cymbals and triangles are found in all military bands, and 
an occasional use is made of castanets. 

The collection of percussion instruments in the Exhibition was very 
large ; but to avoid needless repetition, it is thought more advisable 
to give a general view of this section, than to describe each instru- 
ment under a separate heading. 

The kettledrums and trumpets used on State occasions, and 
graciously lent by Her Majesty the Queen, were placed in a case by 
themselves, and attracted much attention. The banners were of silk 
beautifully embroidered and fringed with gold lace. The drums were 
principally of interest as having been made by Cornelius Ward, and 
being an early example of a mode of tuning invented and patented by 
him in 1837. This tuning arrangement, now so commonly employed, 
consists of a right and left handed screw, acting in conjunction with 
a series of pulleys, and so arranged that, by a single turn of the hand, 
all the braces become tightened simultaneously. The drums measure 



CLASS— INSTRUMENTS OF PERCUSSION. 231 

in diameter 1 foot 4 inches, and 1 foot 5 inches, respectively ; and are 
9 inches in depth. 

In another case could be seen the celebrated pair of silver kettle- 
drums belonging to the Royal Horse Guards. These beautiful drums 
are engraved with the following inscription : — 

Given by King George the Third, 

April the 23rd, 1805, 

To his Royal Regiment of Horse Guards 

as a Testimonial of its Honourable and Military Conduct 

on all Occasions. 

The drums are 14 inches in depth, and measure in diameter 

1 foot 11 inches, and 1 foot 9 inches respectively. They are repre- 
sented in the frontispiece. 

A side-drum of the reign of Queen Elizabeth, measuring 1 foot 
iof inches by 1 foot 10J inches, lent by Messrs. Henry Potter 
and Co., was of interest. This drum belonged originally to the 
armoury at the Tower of London, and was sold as "condemned 
stores " some fifty years ago to the late Mr. Potter. There were 
also a set of old drums belonging to the " Royal Revenue Corps," 
and a set belonging to the " Law Association," all of which were 
of interest. Messrs. Ward and Co. lent a curious bass drum built 
in staves in the same way that a cask is made ; this drum measured 

2 feet by 2 feet 6 inches wide, and in construction is probably 
unique. 

There was also a side-drum which formerly belonged to a regiment 
of Prince Charles Stuart's army, and was left by a straggler, during the 
retreat in 1745, in the village of Arkholme, Lancashire. This drum 
remained as an heirloom in the same cottage family in which it was 
then left, until it was bought, in 1880, by the Rev. W. B. Grenside, 
of Melling, its present possessor. It measures 1 foot 5 inches by 
1 foot 4f inches, and it still bears the marks of bullet holes. 

A side-drum of almost the same date and shape, lent by Colonel 
Shaw-Hellier, measured 1 foot 7 inches by 1 foot 6 inches. 

From the collection of Messrs. Henry Potter and Co., were lent 
interesting old kettledrums of the early part of this century, and once 



232 CATALOGUE OF MUSICAL INSTRUMENTS. 

used in the Honourable East India Company's service. An old bass 
drum of the same period measured 2 feet 6 inches in length by 1 foot 
10 inches in width. Messrs. J. and R. Glen, of Edinburgh, lent a 
drum dating from 1794, of almost identically the same size ; an old 
brass side-drum, once belonging to the 25th Regiment, and parted with 
by them in 1796, was 1 foot 4I inches long by 1 foot 33- inches wide. 
Three side-drums, made about 1850, were lent by Mr. Butler, and differ 
little in shape. 

A bass drum of great interest was lent by Messrs. Mahillon and Co. 
This drum is painted with- the Royal Arms, and with an inscription 
" VII. or Queen's Own Hussars." Its history is curious and deserves 
to be recorded. After the battle of Waterloo it was found by a 
Belgian gentleman living at Brain l'Allend, and was taken away by 
him, as a memento of the day. After his death this drum was given 
by his son to the local band at Boondael, from whose possession it 
passed into the hands of its present owners. 

A collection of curious old drums, and portions of the shells of 
drums, belonging to Messrs. George Potter and Co., the well-known 
drum makers, of Aldershot, was disposed in artistically designed 
trophies round the walls of the gallery. The collection embraced a 
drum 30 by 24 inches, said to have been used at the battle of 
Blenheim ; also one 30 by 28 inches used at Waterloo. There were 
portions of the shells of drums once belonging to the 2nd Battalion of 
the 17th Regiment ; the 56th ; the 2nd Battalion 6th Royal Warwick ; 
the 1st Life Guards; the 1st Battalion 12th Regiment; the 53rd Light 
Infantry; the 2nd Battalion 8th King's. Some models of modern 
drums, made by Messrs. Potter, served to show more the recent con- 
struction of these instruments. 

A pair of kettledrums taken from the French at the battle of 
Dettingen by the 7th Dragoon Guards, then Ligonier's Horse, were 
not the least interesting of these military relics, and attracted the 
attention of many. These drums were, after the action, presented to 
the regiment, in recognition of the fact that, as stated in the official 
accounts, " Ligonier's Horse here gained great reputation." Of great 
interest, too, were an odd looking little pair of Afghan kettledrums, 
belonging to the officers of the XX th Regiment, and taken at Kandahar 
on September 1st, 1880. 



CLASS— INSTRUMENTS OF PERCUSSION. 233 

Of the old tambourines formerly used in military bands there were 
several examples ; the two which attracted the most attention being 
an instrument 1 foot 8 inches in diameter, dating from 1750, now in 
the possession of Colonel Shaw-Hellier ; and one, of rather later date, 
belonging to Messrs. Henry Potter and Co. 

There were specimens of the old Turkish Crescent (chapeait chinois), 
once a favourite adjunct to military bands, and known in former years 
by the familiar nick-name of "Jingling Johnny." They consisted of 
brass hoops, hung with little bells tuned more or less musically, and 
ornamented with gilded crescents and long streaming tails of horse-hair. 
They were carried upon poles some six feet high, and, within the 
memory of some living, negroes were specially enlisted for this duty, 
and sometimes also to beat the tambourines. Two specimens of 
"Jingling Johnnies" belonging to the Edinburgh University repre- 
sented probably the most imposing examples of this noisy implement. 
Of late years a place, as regards outward appearance, somewhat similar 
to that once occupied by the Turkish Crescent would appear to have 
been taken by the Glockenspiel, which, though more musical in quality 
of tone, yet does not combine well with brass and reed instruments ; 
except for special effect the Glockenspiel is better laid aside. This 
instrument, now constructed of vibrating bars of steel beaten with 
metal striker, takes its origin from the wooden Strofiedel, which of 
late years has appeared occasionally in the orchestra, and has been 
used with such effect by M. Saint-Saens in his well-known Danse 
macabre. 



( 235 ) 



APPENDIX. 



AN ESSAY ON MUSICAL PITCH. 
By D. J. Blaikley. 

THE examination and comparison of a number of instruments made 
at different times and in different countries, and designed with 
reference to different scale systems, bring into prominence the question 
of musical pitch. Indeed, some consideration of it cannot be neglected 
or ignored if a confusion of ideas is to be avoided as regards the 
objects aimed at by the makers of, and performers upon, the instru- 
ments described in this Catalogue. 

The " pitch " of a note is its position, high or low, in the whole 
range of sound, and can only be definitely determined by measuring 
the frequency of the vibrations causing that note ; in this country it 
is reckoned according to the number of double or complete vibrations, 
or swings to and fro, per second. Although it is only of recent 
years that accurate means have been devised for measuring vibrational 
values, it must be remembered that the sense and perception of pitch, 
both relative and absolute, may, and does, exist in a high degree, 
without any conscious knowledge of vibrations ; it still remains, how- 
ever, that the difference of vibrational values, as manifested by beats, 
is the readiest and most accurate means of determining slight depar- 
tures from consonance, even to the highly-trained ear. 

The pitch of a note as determined by the measurement of its 
vibrational frequency is, for the sake of distinction, called its "absolute 
pitch " ; its relationship to a given standard, or to other notes in its 
own scale, is its " relative pitch." We may with propriety speak of 
a sound as being low or high, apart from any idea of a standard 
pitch, accordingly as our ears tell us that it lies towards one 
extreme or the other, either of our total range of hearing, or of the 
total range of some particular instrument ; but when we say that it 



236 CATALOGUE OF MUSICAL INSTRUMENTS. 

is flat or sharp, some standard is either expressly or impliedly referred 

to. For instance, G on the first line of the bass clef - £J - — j — may 

— d 

properly be called a low note, absolutely considered, and would 

probably be so described by every one in popular language ; but if 
a certain precise vibrational value, say, of ioo vibrations, were given 
to the note, it would be sharp relatively to the French Diapason 
Normal standard, and flat relatively to our Philharmonic standard. 



Again, the note e', ( Q -J • considered absolutely, could not be 

described either as a low or a high note, for it lies at about the 
middle of the range of hearing, but it is high with respect to the 
compass of a man's voice, and low with respect to that of a woman. 
Whether in any particular case it is flat or sharp, can only be 
determined by reference to a standard. 

For many years previous to 1880 it had been generally recognized 
that considerable changes had from time to time been accepted in the 
numerical vibrational value of a note bearing a certain name, as a' 
or c" ; in other words, the a' or c" had been at times higher, and at 
times lower, than at others. The true character and extent of these 
changes had, however, never been fully investigated or tabulated until 
the late Mr. Alex. J. Ellis took up the examination of these points, 
and our present exact knowledge of this branch of the subject dates 
from March 1880, when he published in the Journal of the Society of 
Arts his paper "On the History of Musical Pitch." So far as the 
following notes are concerned with the history of the matter, the facts 
have been drawn chiefly from Mr. Ellis's work. 

Standards of Pitch. — Before entering in any detail upon the 
various pitches that have been and are in use, it will be convenient to 
note that a standard may be either theoretical or actual. Now a 
theoretical standard can be brought into practical use only through a 
tuning-fork or other such instrument, and if such an instrument is 
officially sealed or in any way certified, it, in itself, becomes an actual 
standard, although it may not agree with the theoretical value it is 
intended to represent. As an example of a purely theoretical pitch, 
the customary scientific pitch of 512 vibs. for c" may be taken ; this is 



APPENDIX— AN ESSAY ON MUSICAL PITCH. 237 

based upon the number 2 — 512 being equal to 2 raised to the ninth 
power (2 9 ). On the other hand, the standard forks made for the 
Society of Arts in i860, which were intended to represent a' 444 and 
c" 528, are really a' 445^7 and c" 534*5, so that the actual standard, 
as represented by the fork, was in the case of the c" about one-fifth 
of a semi-tone higher than its theoretical value of c" 528. ° As an 
instance of close agreement between theoretical and actual values the 
French Diapason Normal should be named. This fork, intended to 
give 435 vibs., is by the best measurements found to give 435'4- This 
exceedingly small difference, although distinctly and easily measurable, 
is of no practical consequence in music. 

At the present day the tuning-fork is universally accepted as the 
most generally convenient instrument for use, both as a standard and 
as a carrier or measurer of pitch, but it cannot be too clearly under- 
stood that in the sense in which we speak of "the standard yard"f 
or " the standard pound " J there is no standard of pitch in this 
country. The case is different in France, where the Diapason Normal, 
referred to above, exists, not merely as a theoretical standard, but as 
an actual fork carefully preserved in the Museum of the Conservatoire 
at Paris. The superiority of the tuning-fork over the old pitch-pipe 
blown by the mouth lies in the small degree of its variation ; as the 
slight variation which is due to changes of temperature is known, it 
can always be allowed for when accurate observations are required. 
The objections to the tuning-fork, when used to give the pitch for a 
band, are its comparatively weak tone and evanescent sound. Metal 
reeds, such as those used in harmoniums, are, if sounded under a con- 
stantly equal pressure of wind, in some ways preferable to tuning-forks, 
for their tone is strong, and they can be kept sounding for any 

* This value (528) for c" was advocated by the Society of Arts Committee, because on this basis 
the intervals of the major diatonic scale can be represented by whole numbers. This is true, however, 
only of the scale of c 4n just intonation, which gives for a' 440 ; the a' 444 (nominal) of the Society 
of Arts is in equal temperament to c" 528. 

f The British Standard Yard is the distance, at the temperature of 62 Fahrenheit, between two 
marks on a certain bar which is kept in the office of the Exchequer at Westminster. — (Kankinc.) 

% The Standard Pound Avoirdupois is the weight, at the temperature of 62° Fahrenheit, and 
under the atmospheric pressure of 30 inches of mercury, in the latitude of London, and at or 
near the level of the sea, of a certain piece of platinum which is kept in the Exchequer Office 
at Westminster. — {Rankine.) 



238 CATALOGUE OF MUSICAL INSTRUMENTS. 

length of time. In the reed-tonometer, constructed by Herr Appunn, 
with which Mr. Ellis made his first series of measurements, there 
were, unfortunately, no means of maintaining equality of pressure ; the 
pressure was not constant even while one reed was sounding, and 
when two reeds were speaking instead of one, further change of 
pressure ensued, hence Mr. Ellis's first results obtained by this appa- 
ratus were vitiated, but with proper precautions a reed-tonometer can 
be made a very valuable instrument, deserving more attention than it 
has hitherto received. 

Division of the Octave or Scale Systems. — As all instruments 
are not tuned from the same pitch-note — a' and c" being those 
chiefly used — it is necessary, when accurate comparisons are required, 
to know the scale system to which any instrument whose pitch is noted 
conforms. The major diatonic scale in just intonation, that is, when 
its different notes as used in harmony are the most satisfying to the 
ear, has its intervals in the following order : — 

c d e f g a be 

8 major tone Q minor tone IO semi-tone XO% major tone 12 minor tone I 7-k major tone XK semi-tone JO 

4 major third 5 minor third 6 - perfect fourth - 8 

3 - perfect fourth 4 - - perfect fifth - - 6 

2 - - perfect fifth 3 perfect fourth - 4 

1 - - - octave - - - 2 

In this scale system it will be noticed that a perfect fifth, as from 
c to g, comprises a major and a minor third, or two major tones, 
a minor tone, and a semi-tone. The fifth, from d to a, however, 
comprises two minor tones, a major tone, and a semi-tone; the 
difference between the two forms of fifths is, therefore, that between 
a major and a minor tone, or the comma of Didymus, ratio, 80 : 81. 
In other words, the a, which is correct in either the scale of c or 
that of /, is too flat for the scale of d. Other similar difficulties 
arise in passing from scale to scale, the root of them all being simply 
the arithmetical fact that the fraction £ (the ratio of the octave), 
raised to the seventh power (j-) 7 , is not identical with the fraction 
§ (the ratio of the fifth) raised to the twelfth power (§) 12 . The first 
of these values represents an interval of seven octaves, the second an 



APPENDIX— AN ESSAY ON MUSICAL PITCH. 239 

interval of twelve perfect fifths, and the working out may be written 
down thus : — 



Octaves 



Fifths 



-c c c 



2X2X2^2^2^2^2 — 128 

c — g—d — a—e — b — /#—c#—gr#—rf#— «#—«#— 6# 

-2.V.2.V.?_v2.v2.vis<'2v^v4v£viv^ 

a «*> a <*> a A. 3 /\ a A a <*> a /*• a <*> 3 •*• 3 <*> a ^ 3 — 



The difference between the two results, i.e., between yj^ and 
i23*746 > * s known as the Pythagorean comma, the Pythagorean or 
theoretical Greek scale having been based upon such a succession of 
perfect fifths. A similar difference would evidently show itself on 
working through perfect fifths downwards, c — / — b\>, &c, to d\>\>; 
therefore, the notes d \f\> and b $, when derived from c through 
perfect fifths, are respectively flatter and sharper than c ; the amount 
will be best appreciated by comparing the numbers of vibrations, 
c being taken as 512. We would then have d\>\> = 505 - i, c = 512, 
and 6n = 519. As key-board instruments have had almost universally 
only twelve keys to the octave, the key or digital used for c has had 
to do duty also for d\>\> and b§, and the necessity for some com- 
promise led to the introduction of temperament. In the modern or 
equal temperament the accumulated error is distributed over the 
twelve fifths, so that each fifth is tuned the twelfth part of a Pytha- 
gorean comma flat. This mis-tuning of the fifths is barely appreciable 
in practical music, but the error of the thirds, major and minor, is 
considerable, and is very perceptible on -fixed toned instruments, such 
as the organ and harmonium. Equal temperament has come into 
general use only during the last fifty years ; it was preceded by 
the mean-tone temperament, which prevailed throughout Europe for 
centuries. 

This temperament — the mean-tone — was based upon maintaining 
the true ratio of the major third 4 : 5, and neglecting the sub-division 
of the same into two unequal tones, the major and the minor, as 
required in just intonation : substituting for these, two equal or 
" mean " tones. The error of flatness in the fifths with this tempera- 
ment is more than twice as great as in the "equal," but the most 



240 CATALOGUE OF MUSICAL INSTRUMENTS. 

serious objection to it, and the cause of its practical disappearance, 
was that when used in the customary way with only twelve keys to 
the octave, it was necessary to throw the accumulated errors into the 
less used keys, with such bad effect that the free modulation required 
in modern music was practically impossible. 

The practical importance of noting instrumental temperament in 
connection with any record of pitch is that the proper conversion 
may be made between the a' and c", or the c" and a', according to 
the pitch-note taken. The ratios are given below for just intonation, 
and for equal and mean-tone temperaments : 

a' being the pitch-note, multiply by i"200 for c" (just) 

1-189 ,, (equal) 

1-196 ,, (mean) 

■833 for a' (just) 

•841 „ (equal) 

•836 ,, (mean). 

As an example of using these figures we may take the French 
Diapason Normal of nominally 435 vibs. : 

435 X i'200 gives c" = 522 (just) 
435 X 1-189 „ c" = 517-2 (equal) 
435 X 1-196 „ c" — 520-3 (mean). 

Supposing the a' to have been taken from an organ, or other such 
instrument, it is therefore evident that the value of c". could not be 
properly entered on any record of pitches until the temperament was 
known. 

Historical Outline. — The oldest instrument referred to by 
Mr. Ellis was the great organ of the cathedral of Halberstadt, in 
Prussian Saxony. This organ was finished in 1361, and restored in 
1495. According to the dimensions given by Prsetorius in 1619, its 
a' would be 505-8 ; this, in all probability, represented its pitch when 
restored, and possibly its original pitch. At about the same date 
another organ pitch was also in use, according to the measurements 
given by Arnold Schlick in 151 1. These two pitches stand at about 
a fourth, or five semi-tones, apart, and are representatives of the 
highest and lowest church pitches. In the same way, and as late as 



APPENDIX— AN ESSAY ON MUSICAL PITCH. 241 

the time of Mersenne (1636-1648), both a low and a high chamber 
pitch were used, with even a greater difference between them than 
existed between the church pitches, for his low chamber pitch a' 
was 403, and his high a' 563, about three tones higher than the 
former, and about one tone higher than the high church pitch, as 
given by himself. 

It is evident that these great differences could not arise from mere 
errors of workmanship ; neither could they arise from a gradual change 
of pitch, such as has gone on in this country — and in a less degree on 
the Continent — since the beginning of the present century, for both 
the extremely high and the extremely low pitches were in use at the 
same time. They were, doubtless, deliberately adopted to meet certain 
requirements of the time, which it is difficult now to trace. 

Early in the 17th century, the consideration of the advantages to 
be obtained from uniformity in pitch appears to have made some 
way. Praetorius, in 1619, gave a drawing with dimensions for the 
half-foot c'" pipe, with the express object of leading organ builders 
in the direction of uniformity, and Mr. Ellis, having had a pipe made 
to these dimensions, found the corresponding a' in mean-tone tempera- 
ment to be 424"2. Whatever was the chief constraining influence, the 
fact is well established that during the 17th, 18th, and the early part of 
the 19th century, the mean European pitch varied very little from that 
suggested by Prsetorius, and was rather more than a semi-tone lower 
than our present " concert pitch." For this low pitch the works of 
Handel, Mozart, and the other great classical musicians, were un- 
doubtedly written, and it was used by the Philharmonic Society when 
founded in 1813, the a' of their piano being then tuned to 423*7. 

The examination of all the instruments exhibited in the Loan 
Collection of the Royal Military Exhibition showed that those made 
before the present century were practically in accordance with the 
mean European pitch above referred to. In some cases the original 
pitch had been altered, and in other cases, owing to uncertainty 
about moveable parts — such as mouthpieces — being original, or from 
general want of repair, it was difficult to judge of the original pitch 
with certainty. Sufficient examination, however, was made for it to 
be evident that a number of instruments made at various times and 
in various countries during the 37th and 18th centuries, were more 

o 



242 CATALOGUE OF MUSICAL INSTRUMENTS. 

closely together in pitch than a similar collection of instruments of 
modern manufacture would be, brought together from different countries 
in Europe, including Great Britain. 

This notable difference is due to the rise of pitch during this 
century, which has been checked in some countries, and has remained 
practically unchecked in others. The chief cause of this change is thus 
summarized by Mr. Ellis: — "The rise in pitch began at the great 
Congress of Vienna, 1814, when the Emperor of Russia presented 
new and sharper wind instruments to an Austrian regiment of which 
he was Colonel. The band of this regiment became noted for the 
brilliancy of its tones. In 1820 another Austrian regiment received 
even sharper instruments, and as the theatres were greatly dependent 
upon the bands of the home regiments, they were obliged to adopt 
their pitch. Gradually at Vienna pitch rose from a' 421/6 (Mozart's 
pitch) to a' 456'i, that is, 136 cents (or hundredths of an equal- 
tempered semi-tone), or nearly three-quarters of a tone. The mania 
spread throughout Europe, but at very different rates. The pitch 
reached a' 448 at the Paris Opera in 1858, and the musical world 
took fright." 

The commission appointed by the Emperor of the French deter- 
mined on a' 435, and this theoretical standard was very closely 
obtained, for the mean of the best measurements of the Diapason 
Normal, as actually made in 1859, ' s 435'4 at I 5° C. or 59° F. This 
pitch, although about a quarter of a tone flatter than the Paris opera 
pitch of 448, was not a novelty, but was fairly in agreement with 
many pitches in use in Europe at the time. It was a compromise 
between the old mean European pitch and modern developments, and 
as a compromise it had been anticipated by Sir Geo. Smart in 
England, as will presently be shown. 

In this country the rise from the Philharmonic pitch of 423'7, as 
adopted by Sir Geo. Smart in 1813, to the present pitch of 452^5, is 
marked by a second fixing by Sir Geo. Smart about the year 1828, 
when c" 518 was agreed upon as a standard, giving in mean-tone 
temperament (the temperament used at the time) a' 433, or in equal 
temperament a' 435"4, exactly French pitch ; this c" 518 fork is now 
in the possession of Mr. A. J. Hipkins. Sir Geo. Smart's own fork 
of this period is an a' 433*2. A second re-fixing of the Philharmonic 



APPENDIX— AN ESSAY ON MUSICAL PITCH. 243 

pitch took place under Sir Michael Costa ; the mean pitch of the 
band from 1846 to 1854 having been a' 452"5, as recorded by 
Mr. Hipkins. It has so remained to the present time, so that, 
although sometimes slightly exceeded, it has been practically the 
same for about forty-four years — possibly longer, for it is probable 
that the pitch under Sir Michael Costa was due not to the deliberate 
introduction of a higher standard, but merely to the recognition of 
a gradual advance from the time of Sir Geo. Smart. Mr. R. S. 
Rockstro has in his possession a fork a' 447" 1 tuned in the orchestra 
of the Philharmonic Society in 1845, and this seems to point to 
a gradual rise. 

The importance of the Philharmonic pitch in connection with wind 
instruments generally, arises from the fact that, according to the 
Queen's Regulations, it is the pitch to be observed in army bands. 
The wording of the regulation is : " In order to ensure uniformity 
throughout the regimental bands of the service, the instruments are 
to be of the same pitch as that adopted by the Philharmonic Society." 
This pitch has, therefore, a quasi-official character, and the Queen's 
Regulation respecting it is the nearest approach to anything like an 
official or Government recognition or declaration of a standard of 
pitch in this country. With a view to keeping this standard, and 
checking further rise of pitch, Colonel Shaw-Hellier, the commandant 
of the Royal Military School of Music, early in last year (1890) 
requested Mr. Hipkins to verify the standard b' \> fork at Kneller 
Hall, and in this examination the writer assisted Mr. Hipkins. To 
keep to a whole number for c", this note was taken as 538, giving in 
equal temperament b'\} 479*3 and a' 452^4 at the medium temperature 
of 6o° Fah. This is about two-thirds of a semi-tone higher than the 
French Diapason Normal. The old drum and fife band pitch, which 
is still in use in a few army drum and fife bands, agrees, however, 
very closely with the Diapason Normal ; it is probably a survival of 
Sir Geo. Smart's Philharmonic pitch of 1828. As this pitch was very 
largely in use throughout the army, the fact is worth noting, espe- 
cially as it appears to have escaped the notice of Mr. Ellis in his 
valuable " History." 

It is the opinion of some authorities that inasmuch as a practically 
constant pitch has been preserved by the Philharmonic Society for 

Q 2 



244 CATALOGUE OF MUSICAL INSTRUMENTS. 

between forty and fifty years, there is now little room to fear a further 
rise. But it should be remembered that the causes which led to the 
gradual rise, which Sir Geo. Smart attempted to restrain in 1828 by 
the introduction of his compromise pitch, are still in operation, and 
both this attempt and Sir Michael Costa's decision in favour of 
a' 452*5 indicate rather the acceptation of existing facts than an 
opinion unfettered by surrounding circumstances. Sir Michael Costa's 
Philharmonic pitch, which in his time was looked upon as high, and 
was distinctly higher than that of pianos and other instruments 
in general private use, is now no longer so, for it is not unusual 
to find pianos sharper than this pitch, and many military bands and 
orchestras customarily play sharper. In short, that which may be 
called the customary or popular pitch has fully come up to, and 
in some cases has overpassed, the highest recognised standard. 
Action based upon a recognition of the causes can alone prevent the 
process continuing. 

Among these causes the chief are probably the liability to error in 
copying tuning forks through the heating caused by filing, and the 
desire of every wind-instrument player to be assured that his instru- 
ment is fully sharp ; for although every such instrument can be tuned 
down by the player, it is impossible for him to raise its pitch. If 
there is any doubt about the pitch of a new instrument in a band, 
a player will always give " the benefit of the doubt " in favour 
of a slight sharpening, and however slight this may be in each 
individual case, the ultimate result must be a gradual average 
sharpening of the band as old instruments fall out of use, unless 
the band is strictly kept down in pitch to a fork or some other 
reliable standard. 

Temperature plays an important part in the variation of the pitch 
of wind instruments ; its influence, therefore, will now be entered upon 
in some detail, and for the sake of comparison its effect upon tuning 
forks and metal reeds is also noted. 

Tuning Forks. — Tuning forks flatten with increase of temperature ; 
the amount of this flattening is about 1 vibration in 16,000 for every 
degree Fahrenheit, equal to three-tenths of a vibration in 10° on the 
Kneller Hall b'\> fork of 470/3 at 6o°. 



APPENDIX— AN ESSAY ON MUSICAL PITCH. 245 



The fork is therefore 










at 


40° 


Fah 


renheit 


479'9 


»> 


50° 




>> 


479/6 


J J 


6o° 




jj 


479'3 


99 


70 
8o° 






479-0 

478'7 



The difference here noted is, of course, too small to be of any 
consequence in practical music ; it is sufficient, however, for it to be 
a matter of importance that the temperature at which a standard 
fork has a given rate of vibration should always be stated, and this 
difference has also to be borne in mind when forks are adjusted or 
tuned to a standard fork by filing. A fork is heated by handling, and 
especially by filing ; consequently a fork which immediately after filing 
appears to be in agreement with a standard will be found after a few 
hours to be appreciably sharper. 

Metal Reeds. — These also flatten with increase of temperature, 
but the amount of total fluctuation depends somewhat upon the re- 
sonating chamber associated with the reed, and no exact rate of 
variation can be given. It may be generally taken as rather greater 
than that of tuning forks. 

Wind Instruments. — We have now to consider the effect of 
temperature upon the instruments in a wind band. The result of 
increase of the heat of the air as from a winter to a summer tempera- 
ture is equal to a rise of pitch of a quarter of a tone between 47 and 
73 , a very ordinary range of temperature. The full effect of this 
variation is seen in the flue pipes of organs, but the variation of the 
reed pipes is less uniform. In wind instruments also the full effects 
can be observed if the comparison is made directly a large instrument, 
say a euphonion, is blown into at two different temperatures ; for 
instance out of doors at 47 , and then indoors at 73 , after the instru- 
ment has been in the warm room long enough to have risen to the 
higher temperature. The difference of a quarter-tone between 47 and 
73 is equal to slightly more than 1 per cent, in the number of 
vibrations for every 10 degrees Fah., so that a cornet giving b'\> 479-3 
at 6o° would give 479-3 + 4*8 or 484-1 at 70 , nearly 5 beats sharp, 



246 CATALOGUE OF MUSICAL INSTRUMENTS. 

if the pitch were taken in each case before the instrument is appreci- 
ably warmed by the breath. In practice, however, this condition of 
things is soon modified ; the effect of the breath is, in this country at 
least, always to sharpen the instrument by raising its temperature, but 
as this warming is proportionately greater at low temperatures than 
at high, the general result is that the variation is not so great as the 
temperatures of the air outside the instrument would indicate. What- 
ever the outside temperature, the air inside an instrument at the 
mouth-piece end will soon be raised to about go°, so that if we 
assume a range of temperature outside the instrument of from 50 to 
70 , and assume also that the air about the bell-mouth has a similar 
range, it is evident that the mean range of temperature in the instru- 
ment will not be so great as 20 , nor will the variation of pitch be so 
great as 20 would indicate. For in the one case, the mean tempera- 
ture in the instrument is something between 90 at the mouth-piece 

q o _|_ e o 

and 50 at the bell-mouth, or say = 70 and in the other 

go° 4. 70 
case something between 90 and 70 , or say = 8o°, so that 

the range of temperature in the instrument may be only that between 
70 and 8o°, or io°, while the range in the surrounding air is from 
50 to 70 , or 20 . 

The exact amount of variation varies in different instruments, for 
even the air in the bell-mouth is in small instruments soon somewhat 
warmed. As a rule, the smaller the instrument, it is proportionately 
the more highly warmed by the breath in cold weather ; so that the 
range of variation of pitch in instruments when fairly warmed with 
playing, is less for flutes and clarionets than for large brass basses, 
the temperature of which at the bell-end rises very little above that 
of the surrounding air, however long they are played upon. In cold 
weather, therefore, the basses will be more below pitch than the 
clarionets, and in hot weather they will be more above. 

From all this, it will be seen that the pitch of a band should be 
taken when the instruments are fairly warmed with playing, and when 
the general temperature of the air is about 6o°. Neglect of these 
precautions has doubtless been one of the chief causes of the extrava- 
gantly high pitch of some military and brass bands. When it is 



APPENDIX— AN ESSAY ON MUSICAL PITCH. 



247 



remembered that if a cornet is made so sharp as to give the Kneller 
Hall b'\) directly it is blown upon at 60°, it will be four or five beats 
sharp by the time it is warm ; and further, will rise another four or 
five beats in a hot concert - room, say at 8o° ; it will be seen how 
important it is, if Philharmonic pitch is to be observed, that the 
precaution should be taken of comparing instruments with the standard 
in the way suggested above. 

For some years past the writer has taken observations of the com- 
parative pitches of different wind instruments, when warm with actual 
use, and at various external temperatures ranging from 40 to 8o° ; 
the results are summarised in the following table, in which b'\> has 
been selected as the pitch note, as it is the most convenient one for 
military band instruments : — 



VARIATION OF PITCH IN WIND INSTRUMENTS. 



A rise of 10° Fah. in external temperature 
increases the pitch of 


Per cent, of 

number 
of Vibrations. 


Vibrations 

on 
<H479'3- 


Flute and Oboe - 

Clarinet ----- 

Cornet and Trumpet - 

French Horn and Trombone 

Euphonion ----- 

Bombardon ----- 

Mean of Full Wind Band - 

Organ Flue Pipes - 


•31 
•43 
•51 
•60 

•66 

73 

•54 

1 -OS 


I -50 
2-06 

2-45 
2-88 
3-16 
3'5o 
2-60 

504 



The mean here given for b'\>, 2'6o beats for io°, is equal to 2 - c)i 
on c" ; but as the larger wind instruments which alter most are seldom 
used in the orchestra, an allowance of 2*5 beats on c" for every io° is 
sufficient for orchestral variation. As concert-rooms are usually warmer 
than 6o°, the standard temperature, " concert pitch " pianos are usually 



248 CATALOGUE OF MUSICAL INSTRUMENTS. 

tuned to c" 540 ; the difference between the standard c" 538 and c" 540 
allows for the room being as warm as 68° without disturbance to the 
wind band, for the instruments rising 2*5 vibrations in io° on c", would 
rise exactly from 538 to 540 in the range of 8°, from 6o° to 68°. 

It will be evident, from the foregoing data and remarks, that as 
instruments vary in different degrees with temperature, it is impossible 
that all the instruments in a band can rise and fall exactly together. 
The manufacturer may be expected to make them so that they stand 
well together at a medium temperature; but the adjustment necessary 
to ensure a good ensemble at extreme temperatures must be left to 
the judgment and experience of the players. 



A SUGGESTED NEW STANDARD. 

The following considerations, although forming no part of a review 
of the actual position of the musical pitch question in this country, 
are added to the foregoing short sketch as an expression only of the 
personal opinion of the writer, and in the belief that the standard 
suggested has never hitherto been proposed. 

Of the four standards to which reference has been made, two, 
viz., c" 512 and c" 528, are purely theoretical, each resting upon 
an easily understood arithmetical basis, but being unrepresented in 
actual music in this country, unless by mere coincidences. The two 
most in use, viz., a' 435'4 and a' 452*4, rest upon no arithmetical 
basis of whole numbers whatever, for although the pitch a' 452^4 
agrees with c" 538, the lower octaves of this c" require fractions to 
express their vibrational values. 

For the purposes of demonstration and experiments in acoustics, in 
which it is convenient to have whole numbers for the vibrations of 
the notes of the common chord in just intonation, there is an advan- 
tage in either of the two first named standards, but in the practical 
construction of modern instruments, which are in equal temperament 
and not in just intonation, the advantage of this particular form of 
numerical simplicity vanishes. 



APPENDIX— AN ESSAY ON MUSICAL PITCH. 



249 



The ratios of the intervals of the equal temperament scale are 
shown in Table I., and the vibrational value or frequency of any note 
taken as a pitch note being given, that of any other related note 
in this temperament can be found by use of the multiplier corre- 
sponding to the difference in semitones between the two notes. 

Example : c' = 269 ; find e'. e' 
multiply 269 by 1-2599, 

269 X 1*2599 = 338-91 value of e'. 



being four semitones above c' 



EQUAL TEMPERAMENT. 



Table I. 






T 


\BLE II. 






Differ- 
ence in 
semi- 
tones. 


Note. 


Ratio, or 
relative 

frequency. 


Note. 


Absolute 
vibrations. 


Note. 


Absolute 
vibrations. 


Note. 


Absolute 
vibrations. 


12 


c 


2 


00000 


g 


20000 


g' 


400-00 


g" 


800-00 


I I 


b 


I 


8877s 


/# 


1887S 


f'% 


377-55 


f"\ 


755-io 


IO 


a \ 


I 


78 1 So 


/ 


I78-I8 


/' 


356-36 


J" 


712-72 


9 


a 


I 


68179 


e 


i68-iS 


/ 


336-36 


e" 


672-72 


8 


4 


I 


58740 


d % 


1S874 


''tt 


317-48 


d "% 


63496 


7 


g 


I 


49831 


d 


I49-83 


d' 


299-66 


d" 


59932 


6 


f\ 


I 


41421 


'% 


141-42 


'% 


282-84 


'"# 


565-68 


5 


/ 


I 


33484 


c 


I33-48 


c' 


26697 


c" 


533-94 


4 


e 


I 


25992 


B 


128-49 


b 


256-98 


b' 


503-97 


3 


d % 


I 


1 892 1 


A \ 


nS'92 


a\ 


237-84 


*'$ 


475-68 


2 


d 


I 


12246 


A 


112-25 


a 


224-49 


a! 


448-98 


1 


4 


I 


05946 


G \ 


105-95 


*% 


2 II -89 


*% 


423-78 





c 


I -ooooo 


G 


ico-oo 


g 


200-00 


1 


400-00 




'\- • 


7T l— 


y ' 1 




^h-F 


/[ i 




KB ^~ 


f(T\ J 




\y\) • 






1) _4- 


Zr 














it 







In Table I. c is taken as the basis, but it is immaterial what note 
of the scale is represented by unity, so long as the figures given are 
taken to set forth ratios only and not frequencies. If, however, the 



250 CATALOGUE OF MUSICAL INSTRUMENTS. 

scale of ratios or multipliers could be used to represent actual vibra- 
tional as well as proportional values, we would have a standard for 
the musical scale of a similar character to those usually adopted for 
other scientific work involving measurements. In such standards, either 
unity, or some power of ten, is taken as a datum to which variations 
can be referred for comparison, and from which proportions can be 
calculated. In the given table of ratios, the removal of the decimal 
point two places gives ioo*oo as the basis of the scale in place of 
i*oooo, and this number happens to agree closely with the vibrational 



value of G, f '' I — which in Philharmonic pitch is 100*67, and in 

French pitch is 96*97. There is a suitability in the note on the lowest 
line of the customary musical staff being taken as a datum, and if it 
can be shown upon examination that the value G = ioo is one that 
in the event of any general standard being adopted in this country 
would create the least disturbance, the strongest practical reason would 
be added to the arithmetical advantage of a simple and easily remem- 
bered numerical basis. 

Table II. shows the scale fully written out for three octaves on the 
proposed basis of G = ioo ; in this scale a' = 448*98 and c" = 533'94, 
or in whole numbers 449 and 534 respectively. 

The Society of Arts' c" fork as actually made in i860 gave 534*46, 
equal to G ioo*i ; so that, although intended to give c" 528, it was 
quite unintentionally exceedingly close to the standard now proposed. 

Table III., annexed, shows how widely spread throughout Europe 
at the time of the French Commission in 1858-9, and also at the time 
of the Society of Arts' investigations in 1859 and again in 1869, were 
different pitches varying but a very few vibrations from the proposed 
a' 449, based upon G 100. The tendency towards a gradual rise in 
pitch, already noticed in the body of this Appendix, as illustrated by 
Mr. R. S. Rockstro's Philharmonic fork a' 447*1 of the year 1845 as 
compared with a' 452*5 between 1846 and 1854, is to be seen also in 
the Milan pitch of 446*6 as given by Marloye's fork in 1845, compared 
with the pitch in 1856, 450*3 as sent to the French Commission. 

The total range of pitch covered in Table III. from a' 435*0 to 
a' 457*9 is equal to ■£$$ of a semitone. 



w 

<! 

H 





























4) 


H 




r--vj) 


rt-CO 


On 




a* 


o 


CTv 




a 


h 




ro t**. 


VO 




to 


to 


to 






< 




CO CO 


00 oo 


CO 


•^■ 


CO 


CO 


00 






Q 




hH CO 






to 










"rt 






w 






CO 
































o ^ 






















S a 






















"S i 






; • 


• ; 






; 








o g . 






















f ■§ 






















^ u 






















by the thic 
i the third 






a : 
o • 

-: - 




a 
Q 


■c 

03 


a 

o 
-o 

a 


fc 


•s 

Hi 


■ 














—T 






I 


•a ' 9 










I 


: 








o 
















S 






1- 


1 -a 






: : 


: : 


: 


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(A 

o 


: 


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^^ 














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DL 
















1 






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1" 1 

d 














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: : 












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•a 3 

<U (U 








: : 


: : 


: 


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CO 






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1' ° 










a 






00 






2 


emitone, 
ed a' 449, 






T3 1 




u 

a 


•d" 










1 


TJ 13 




a 


T3 




•a 


z 




T3 

a 
2 : 

"w • 

a 

B? : 

o : 

g oo 

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in 


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bfiat 

18 

co.ja 

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°Q 




*4J 


a 

rt 
m 


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qual-tempered s 

erament 

:low the propos 




ri 
H 

(Q 

V 

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a 

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u 
rt 


9 

o 

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3 
u 

10 


3 

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a 
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is one e 
ual temp 
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2 ° « 












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rid*. 




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6»M. 


BD 






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rised in this 

for a' and c' 

of a semito 




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oo 


3 j; 

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t~v~ 














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5 






in 


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to 


J* 


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tn 






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pi .a 




in 


N 


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to 


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W- 


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Sol !1 




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to 


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to 


to 


to 


\Ti 
























2 -° £ 

M t* t> 








































V 1) eu 

J J J 

H P H 


"s 




1 


O 
1 


OS 

OO 
CO 


CO 

■4- 


p 
■h 

CO 


to 

CO 


p 
in 



[Tofacepagt 150.) 



APPENDIX— AN ESSAY ON MUSICAL PITCH. 251 

It is probably beyond controversy that as a mean between " the 
pitches, for which the classical writers of the last century and the chief 
operatic composers of the present century wrote, the French Diapason 
Normal is the best, but the fact that a pitch of from 445 to 450 for 
a' was used for many years in all the leading opera houses of Europe, 
shows that the practical danger lies in passing this limit, or in going 
more than a quarter of a tone above French pitch. The possibility of 
the general introduction of French pitch into this country was examined 
by the Society of Arts' Committee in 1859, and again by a Committee 
appointed at a public meeting in St. James's Hall, London, in 1885, 
convened by the Royal Academy of Music in consequence of a com- 
munication from the Foreign Office ; but the recommendation in 
favour of its introduction, proceeding from the 1885 Committee, was 
without results, in consequence of the expense which such a change 
would have entailed. It should also be noticed that although in 1885 
instrument makers professed their readiness to make instruments to 
whatever pitch was decided upon, the real difficulty in the way of 
any great change is the pitch of existing instruments, and especially 
of the great organs, and this can only be removed by the owners or 
custodians of these instruments being willing to meet the necessary 
expense. 

The general introduction of French pitch as a national standard 
appears to be impracticable on the score of expense. Brass instru- 
ments could be altered to it without either great cost or damage, but 
so great an alteration of wood wind instruments is not only generally 
impracticable, but in some cases impossible. Even if all military and 
orchestral wind instruments were thus altered, the difficulty of using 
them with unaltered organs would be as great as at present, for many 
of the most important of these are above French pitch. To this reason 
must be added the opinion of many, which although not perhaps 
preponderating, is doubtless wide-spread, that a lowering to the 
Diapason Normal is greater than an all-round consideration of cir- 
cumstances and artistic interests requires. 

The amount of flattening which wood wind instruments can bear 
without serious injury to intonation is about one-fifth, or at the most 
one-fourth, of a semitone. Instruments at the present military pitch of 
nominally a' 452*4, but practically of about a' 455 to a' 457, as nearly 



252 CATALOGUE OF MUSICAL INSTRUMENTS. 

all bands play sharp, cannot, therefore, be used with the large church 
organs, which are about half a semitone, or rather more, below this ; 
but if band instruments were re-tuned to the proposed standard a' 440, 
there would be no serious difficulty in using them with church organs 
on special occasions, for the amount of flattening required would not 
exceed the limits named above. 

Many wind instruments exist and are in use which were made 
when the pitch was somewhat lower than it is at present. Such of 
these as have been cut to agree with the present high pitch, and 
have suffered in consequence, would be improved rather than deterio- 
rated by being re-tuned to a' 449. 



The substance of the considerations given in some detail above, 
is summarised in the following notes : — 

The present Philharmonic and Kneller Hall pitch is practically in 
universal use in this country, in India, and in the colonies for all wind- 
band music. Such deviations from it as are to be found are usually 
and unfortunately in the direction of a still higher pitch. The most 
important exceptions are Her Majesty's private band and the band 
of the Royal Italian Opera, Covent Garden, which are tuned to 
French pitch. 

A lowering to the Diapason Normal, which is about two-thirds 
of a semitone lower than the Kneller Hall standard fork, and very 
nearly a semitone lower than the highest wind-band pitch in actual 
use, has been suggested, but has been found impracticable on account 
of the expense that would be incurred. 

In the event of any renewed attempt to adopt a general standard 
of pitch in this country other than the present Philharmonic, it is 
submitted that a standard based upon G = 100 presents the advantage 
that in computations the ratios of the equal temperament scale give 
at once the frequency of each note without further calculation. 

This proposed pitch is closely in agreement with that used in all 
the chief European opera houses for many years during this century, 
and with the Society of Arts' standard c" fork as made and widely 
copied. It is a quarter of a semitone higher than French pitch. 



APPENDIX— AN ESSAY ON MUSICAL PITCH. 253 

Existing instruments, with perhaps a few exceptions, could be 
adjusted to this pitch with accuracy and at comparatively small 
cost. Many that are now in use would be distinctly improved by 
the alteration. 

If so altered, wind instruments could be used with the most 
important cathedral and church organs, the difference not being more 
than could be regulated by the usual means. The present difference 
is too great to be overcome by means of the tuning slides. 

The suggested standard, being a mean between the highest and 
the lowest pitches in actual use in this country, would probably cause 
less confusion and expense in connection with its adoption than any 
other. 

Those singers who find the present Philharmonic pitch too high, 
would find a distinct advantage in that now proposed. At the same 
time, the change would not be so great as to call forth opposition 
from those who consider the French pitch too low. 



gonlxnt : 

PRINTED BY EYRE AND SPOTTISWOODE, 

Her Majesty 's Printers, 

Downs Park Road, Hackney, N.E. 















Tr? 



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